Astronomers have studied the formation of super-earths

Mini-neptunes and super-earths are four times the size of our planet. These are the most common exoplanets

orbiting stars outside our solar system.

It was previously believed that the super-earth is a stonethe core of mini-neptunes without a gas atmosphere. However, in a new study, astronomers from McGill University have shown that the gas atmosphere is not necessary.

According to one theory, most exoplanetsare born as mini-Neptune, but some of them lose their gas envelopes under the influence of radiation from host stars: as a result, only a dense rocky core remains of them. This theory predicts that there are very few Earth-sized or smaller exoplanets in our galaxy. However, recent observations show that this algorithm does not always work.

To find out more, astronomers usedsimulation to track the evolution of exoplanets. In their model, they used thermodynamic calculations based on how massive the super-Earths cores are, how far they are from their host stars, and how hot the surrounding gas is.

Contrary to previous theories, our research shows that some exoplanets cannot create a gaseous atmosphere.

Name Eva Lee, associate professor of physics at McGill University and McGill Space Institute

The findings suggest that exoplanets were most likely formed by the combination of different kinds of rocks that appeared in the rotating disk of gas and dust around the host stars.

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