How was the Russian vaccine developed?
Russia is developing 47 vaccines against coronavirus, announced 20
Ten Russian vaccines are included in the global list of promising vaccines of the World Health Organization (WHO).
- Six vaccines of the Novosibirsk State Scientific Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector".
- Two vaccines from Biocad, one of which is being developed jointly with the Institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg.
- And one vaccine each from the St. Petersburg Institute of Vaccines and Serums and Moscow State University.
The most promising among them are the FBSI SSC VB "Vector" and the Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology. N.F. Gamalei.
Of these, "Vector" is a participant in the geneticthe state program, which will be financed not only from the budget, but also with the involvement of large sponsors like Rosneft. In 2019, Vector, by order of Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, was included in the list of organizations on the basis of which centers for "world-class genomic research" will be created.
The second organization, the Gamaleya Research Center, wasIt was created as a private chemical-microscopic and bacteriological office in 1891, later it was transformed into a private institute, and in 1919 it became a state one. Until 2010, the center was subordinate to the Russian Academy of Sciences, after - the Ministry of Health. Since 1997, it has been permanently headed by a microbiologist, a specialist in the field of molecular biology of pathogenic microorganisms, Alexander Gintsburg. The center deals with problems in the field of epidemiology, microbiology, infectious immunology, "a special place" in its activities is occupied by "patterns of distribution and epidemic manifestations of infectious diseases."
Which vaccine is best?
Doctors and virologists note that the effectiveness of the CoVid-19 vaccine consists of two key parameters.
The first is immunogenicity, that is, the abilitythe drug to induce an immune response in the human body. In other words, the drug should trigger a reaction and force the body to produce antibodies to the coronavirus. In many respects, the success of a particular vaccine depends on this, and it is for the most rapid search for a vaccine that the Russian Ministry of Defense and various research institutes are testing several ways to trigger an immune response at once.
The second is security. It is impossible to make a completely harmless drug in a few weeks. For example: employees of the Russian Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector" have experimented with more than 25 antiviral compounds, of which only three have shown particular effectiveness.
Why does development take so long?
There are several reasons for this: first, there are difficulties with the study of coronavirus strains. Some experts are sure that new strains do not affect its spread, while others believe that new CoVid-19 mutations affect not only the rate of spread of the disease, but also the severity of its course in those infected.
Another reason is that there is no universal cure for viral infections.
And third, the creation of any vaccine is a long process. All testing and agency approvals can take up to several years.
At what stage are the tests of Russian companies?
In early July, the general director of the center"Vector" Rinat Maksyutov said that three prototypes of the coronavirus vaccine have successfully overcome trials in Russia. According to him, the selected drugs are the most advanced in terms of the results obtained. Vector has completed preclinical trials of a vaccine against coronavirus. Now the center is testing volunteers.
- Gamaleya National Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology.
The Ministry of Defense announced the readiness of the first Russian vaccine against coronavirus in National Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after Gamaleya.
The first clinical results of new vaccines are alreadyobtained: after two weeks of testing, no serious adverse events were recorded in volunteers. After a while, the volunteers will be injected with the second component of the vaccine. If the antiviral cocktail does not have serious side effects, then the coronavirus vaccine trials can be considered successful. The head of the preclinical research department of a large pharmaceutical company Yevgeny Shevchenko notes that each country is going its own way to create a vaccine and these drugs will not appear on the free market immediately.
Volunteers at Sechenov University from June 18without antibodies to SARS-CoV2, a drug created by specialists from the N.F. Gamaleya Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology was administered. Some of the volunteers received one dose, the rest - two. According to the results, representatives of the university announced that all volunteers had immunity. Only a few had a slight increase in temperature in the first days. However, it is not yet known how long the vaccine will last.
However, according to Sergei Borisovich, the chief48th Central Scientific Research Institute of Radiation, Chemical and Biological Defense Troops, Doctor of Biological Sciences, “scientists still have a huge layer of analytical work, drawing up final reports, presenting results, state registration of a vaccine preparation”.
What is known about the developed vaccine?
Alexander Gintsburg, head ofResearch Institute named after Gamalea, immunity during vaccination with this drug will be developed within two days when the body re-meets the virus. During the first vaccination, a person develops humoral cellular immunity, and after the second vaccination, memory cells are formed in a large number - one of the main properties of the vaccine.
When a vaccinated person facescoronavirus - it has both humoral immunity, and cellular immunity will not be developed within two weeks, but within two days it will defend our vaccinated body.
Alexander Gintsburg, head of the N.I. Gamalei
This viral vector vaccine is based onhuman adenovirus - the common cold virus - and is combined with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to stimulate the immune response. That is, the vaccine is not made on the basis of the coronavirus. One element is taken from the coronavirus, but at the same time it produces antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.
Why did the Ministry of Health denied the vaccine statement?
The department said that the coronavirus vaccine is still in clinical trials: they are currently in the second stage.
Currently, the second phase of clinicaltests of the vaccine developed by the Research Center for Microbiology and Epidemiology named after N.F. Gamalei of the Ministry of Health of Russia continues and is at its final stage. Upon completion, the issue of its state registration will be decided.
Alexey Kuznetsov, Assistant Minister of Health</ p>
At the moment, the Ministry of Defense is notexplained at what stage the development of the Russian vaccine is. What the Gamaleya National Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology is currently doing is not specified.
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