Super-heavy rocket, unified satellite system and GLONASS development. All about the plans of Roscosmos

In early November, Russian President Vladimir Putin held a meeting on the development of the rocket and space


We, of course, need to proceed from ourpriorities, they are known. This is the improvement of our own space infrastructure, the building up and qualitative improvement of the orbital constellation of spacecraft, the rhythmic continuation of manned programs, the creation of a promising line of rocket complexes, in general, an increase in the share of innovative space technology, products and services.

Vladimir Putin, President of Russia

With this in mind, the corporation was instructedto prepare programs, in particular, aimed at developing a super-heavy rocket complex, at creating a space group within the framework of the Sphere project, as well as at the further development of the GLONASS system.

The President stressed that in order to achieve the goals,facing the Russian rocket and space complex, it is necessary to more actively use the instruments of public-private partnership, as well as actively use extra-budgetary and borrowed funds.

What programs are you talking about specifically?

  • Development of the super-heavy rocket "Yenisei"

This is a Russian super-heavy launch vehicleclass (RN STK-1). In particular, the first super-heavy launch vehicle developed by the Russian industry in the post-Soviet period. The head development organization is RSC Energia.

It is being developed under the federal targetthe program "Creation of a super-heavy class space rocket complex for 2020-2030" (prepared jointly with the Russian Academy of Sciences in the spring of 2019), which is estimated at 1.5 trillion rubles. The main launch vehicle of the second stage of the Russian lunar program.

On the basis of the launch vehicle "Yenisei" is being developed byadding stage, launch vehicle "Don" (LV STK-2). The concept of creating a superheavy assumes that all of its parts should be aircraft with serial production and launch statistics:

  • First stage: will consist of 6 blocks, each block will consist of the first stage "Irtysh" / "Soyuz-5" (RD-171MV engine).
  • The second stage: will consist of one unit - the first stage "Soyuz-6", the engine - RD-180.

The first launch is expected in 2028 from the Vostochny cosmodrome.

  • Systems of near-earth satellites "Sphere"

Space program "Sphere" was born in 2015year. It is a system of satellites that provide coverage of the entire globe. The project will integrate the GLONASS system and modern technologies that will allow the use of cellular communications and high-speed Internet anywhere in the world.

The first mention of the development appeared in 2015year. The project called "Ether" involved launching 288 vehicles into various orbits up to 870 kilometers high. The system is capable of withstanding the load of 10 million subscribers simultaneously.

In addition, with the help of a new satellite systemtens of thousands of transport units can be provided with the Internet. The launch of all satellites into orbit was supposed to be completed in 2025, but the program was sent back for revision - this is how the Sphere project arose.

The main difference between the "Sphere" and its predecessorthere will be a number of devices - 640 satellites together 288. This will allow you to more accurately determine the location of the object and reduce the delay in signal transmission, which will not exceed a few milliseconds. With the help of the "Sphere" system, it will be possible to conduct a billion secure transactions per day.

The satellite will be used"Gonets-M1" is a modification of the "Gonets" series devices. Launching into orbit will begin in four years and will be completed by 2028. The satellites will be launched into space in 25 launches using the new Angara heavy launch vehicles. During each launch, about 25 satellites will be delivered to orbit at once.

Roscosmos asked the government for 1.5 trillionrubles for the creation of a multifunctional satellite system "Sphere". This amount exceeds the total budget of the federal space program of Russia for a ten-year period (1 trillion 406 billion rubles are allocated from 2016 to 2025), and also twice as much as the amount of investments for the implementation of the Starlink project (estimated at $ 10 billion). Earlier, the amount of funding for the Sphere program was not officially announced.

Roscosmos plans that in 2024 it will be able to begin the first launches to deploy the high-orbit segment of the system. LEO spacecraft will be launched later.

In addition, the state corporation plans to develop GLONASS. What exactly is at stake is not specified.

What's the bottom line?

According to Putin, at the moment the programs in question have not been approved.

I ask you to report today, what are the reasons for thisdelays when their formation is finally completed. I would like to stress right away that this work must be done as soon as possible, including promptly determining the required amount of budgetary allocations for these programs.

Vladimir Putin, President of Russia

You also need to form an agreed position onthe financing of the Federal Space Program for 2016–2025. Within its framework, a significant number of important projects are being implemented, in particular in the field of manned astronautics, the president added.

In September 2019, Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov,overseeing the government's military-industrial complex, the Russian super-heavy rocket Yenisei being created for flights to the moon estimated at between 1 trillion and 1.7 trillion rubles. At the same time, the official noted that the state corporation "must complete a preliminary technical design, which will include a feasibility study and the procedure for further work."

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