It is impossible to recycle incineration: why garbage reform will not save Russia from landfills and harm the environment

Who will take the garbage and what will be done with it after the garbage reform?

The authorities are confident that the situation will be saved

waste incineration plants.Hitachi Zosen Inova technologies were praised by President Vladimir Putin at his press conference in December 2018; the company presented them six months earlier. Five factories using this technology will appear in Russia - in the Moscow region and Tatarstan.

But even plans to build them causedmass protests in several regions of Russia, which have been going on for several years. Environmentalists insist that this is a "barbaric way" of waste management. They are sure: the garbage must not be burned, but recycled.

Incineration plants - only part of the garbagereform, which began to operate in 2019. Now operators have appeared in all regions. Initially it was assumed that they will collect money and transfer them to the highest level. But the system has not changed - contractors and subcontractors still work with garbage. They are hired by regional operators, and not management companies, as before.

In addition, a new line appeared in the payment,dedicated to the collection and disposal of garbage. The cost of service has also increased. According to Deputy Prime Minister Alexei Gordeev, this is approximately 120–130 rubles per month per person, but the amount depends on the region. So the authorities want over time to introduce sorting and separate collection of waste, to eliminate natural landfills and reduce the amount of landfill.

The Russian government has set the goal of completely abandoning landfills as sites for the disposal of solid waste by 2030.

"Strategic set such a task: abandonment of landfills for the disposal of solid municipal waste as the most environmentally harmful, ... we consider it realistic to reduce their number to a minimum by 2030 and prohibit the use of non-recycled waste for housing, meaning solid municipal waste, ”said Alexei Gordeyev at a meeting with the Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev.

Primary sorting consists of separation of garbage.for two tanks - organic waste and all other garbage. Representatives of the operators noted that it is difficult to sort in more detail so far: the majority of residents are not ready for this, and it is difficult to organize logistically. It is the operators who are responsible for sorting the garbage, and deciding what will be recycled, what they will bury, and what they will burn.

Plan to burn, including in new plants. The national project "Ecology", which was developed in the Year of Ecology, includes 11 points, among them - "Clean Country". This project involves the emergence in Russia of waste incineration plants using the technology of the Swiss company Hitachi Zosen Inova, a subsidiary of Hitachi, which deals with various tasks - from financial solutions to electrical appliances. It has already built 458 incineration plants around the world on a turnkey basis, 200 of which are in Europe. For example, in Dubai, the company plans to launch the largest plant in the world, and it built its first plant in Osaka in 1965.

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This is clearly not the limit - Hitachi wants to expand itsrepresentation in Russia. The construction of five incinerators is the first stage of the program, in which the Swiss company will help, it will provide a guarantee for the first two years of their work. Two plants in the Moscow region want to open in 2021, a year later - two more plants in the same place and one in Tatarstan. They differ in capacity - in Moscow they can handle up to 700 thousand tons of garbage per year, in Tatarstan - 550 thousand tons. It is worth building plants for 30 billion rubles, and in Tatarstan - 28 billion rubles. This will be handled by the company RT-Invest - Rostec subsidiary.

“Energy from waste” is a punning name,which refers to what the plant will actually do. In the presentation, the company sells the idea that in the modern world you need to be able to solve two problems - it is the fight against waste and energy production. Plants, noted in Hitachi, cope with both tasks. True, the tariffs for such energy will be higher than usual, the authorities plan that the nearest enterprises will use them.

Hitachi waste energy technologies

The project does not imply that they will burnall the trash. Only waste that cannot be recycled will be sent to factories, authorities note. Hi-Tech turned to RT-Invest for comment to find out where the very processing that officials promise will be carried out. But it was not possible to receive a response from the company that will implement an important part of the Ecology national project. A contradiction arises - the promised processing enterprises in Russia will appear only by 2030, but in the meantime, during all this time (about nine years from the launch of the first waste incineration plant), MSW subject to processing will continue to be sent to a landfill.

The project "Energy from waste" - Rostec version

At the same time, they have already begun to launch in the Moscow regionthe first waste sorting complexes. They are able to separate organic waste from all other garbage. Organics are unpleasant because they smell, and it is the smell that becomes a real problem for those who live near landfills. Thanks to sorting complexes, organic waste will be sent to closed compost sites. There they will “ripen” for several months, and only then, after bacterial steam treatment, they will become simple, odorless compost. Such raw materials can be used to fill roads or reclaim landfills.

Another 40% of waste is only planned to be sent.for recycling. Plastic is suitable for creating building insulation, ecological fur and mattress filler. Paper used in packaging and hygiene products. Metal take in the automotive industry. And rubber, leather and wood will become fuel, for example, in cement plants. The remaining 20% ​​of waste, which is "recycled" for technological reasons, will have to go either to incineration plants or landfills. However, new landfills will be built according to modern environmental standards. They will be provided with a drainage system for removal of gases and liquids, and to avoid soil contamination, a geotextile barrier will be placed at the bottom of the landfill.

At the same time a representative of Hitachi argues thatAn incinerator can be either part of a recycling system or an independent way to handle waste. “Our plants are able to recycle any waste. We advise municipalities to organize separate collection and subsequent processing of waste. But if not, then not. Our plants will cope, ”noted Franz-Josef Mengede of Hitachi.

They will work on atmospheric technology.burning at very high temperatures. Garbage is brought to the plant and burned at a temperature of 1,260 ° C. Then in the afterburner, it is treated at a temperature of 850 ° C. The released gas is purified using three filter stages. Dioxins and furans cause the most concern - they are part of the “dirty dozen” of substances and, if accumulated in the human body, can cause damage to the liver, immune and nervous systems. The representative of Hitachi Andres Kronenberg said that the plant does not have a negative impact on the environment, and human health will not suffer, even if it lives opposite or inside the plant. Cronenberg added that the company's office is located opposite one of the factories, and “if it feels bad, then it is not connected with the plant”.

If you believe the presentation Rostec, after burningfly ash will remain, which will be neutralized by cementing, steam will be converted into electricity, slag will be taken into useful fractions and sent to road construction.

General Director of RT-Invest Andrei ShipelovHe told Forbes that the financing of the factories is divided into two rounds - at first, RT-Invest will invest 1.5 billion rubles, more than 20–30% of 150 billion rubles will be invested by shareholders, including HZI. According to him, the Japanese-Swiss partners will invest about $ 50 million. They plan to recoup the project in 15 years at the expense of electricity. As a result, for industrial consumers in the Moscow region the cost of electricity will grow by 2.6%, in Tatarstan - by 1.6%. At the same time, the load on the population, according to Shipelova, will not increase. All five plants will reach full capacity by 2022. Until then, under the waste will have to open new landfills or take the garbage to other regions.

Everything is according to the norms, but activists need more

In Russia, plans to build factories did not takewith enthusiasm - in each of the cities where the construction of waste incineration plants is planned, there appeared activists who oppose them. In Kazan, for example, they hold the most mass rallies in the region, and their main means of communication online, the VKontakte group, has almost 10 thousand people. They require the abolition of construction, the introduction of a separate collection, the emphasis on recycling and waste reduction, order independent expertise.

Public organization "Princip"inspected the plant in Kazan and concluded that it can not be built on the parameters that are stated. It will harm the environment and public health, poison the air; there is no technology that will separate the garbage. The project was developed with violations of safety rules, its environmental safety can not be confirmed according to the documents that exist. Experts note that the level of efficiency of cleaning exhaust gases from pollutants is clearly overestimated, and for dioxins and furans it is impossible even theoretically.

What is the difference between Russian waste incineration plants and foreign ones in terms of their cleaning system?

At the plant, which they intend to build next toKazan, there will be a three-stage gas purification. The first stage - the gases are kept at a temperature of more than 850 ° C for about two seconds, which should ensure the decomposition of dioxins. The second stage is purification in the reactor. Using activated carbon and slaked lime, gases are purified from organic substances, heavy metals and acidic components. The third stage is filtration in a bag filter to remove ash, dust and gas purification products.

In an interview with the adviser to the general director of RT-Invest, Sergei Bogatov said that the amount of dioxin release will be no more than 0.2 g per ton of emissions.

“The concentration of substances is much lower than the maximum permissible, namely 3%,” said Marianna Kharlamova, head of the department of environmental monitoring and forecasting at PFUR.

According to hygienic standards, the maximum permissible concentration for dioxins and furans in the air for populated areas is 0.5 pg per cubic meter.

For comparison: a similar process is used by Eco Sustainable Solutions at the Nottingham plant. After the gas has turned water into steam, it is purified using a chain of processes that neutralize harmful substances, then remove the "fly ash". After that, the gas is treated with activated carbon, and then with ammonia or urea injection.

Finally, the gas is treated with lime forgetting rid of acidity, filtered through a series of fabric and particulate filters to remove all remaining particles, including a charged filter, which uses electrostatic separation to remove particles.

Greenpeace Incineration Plantscalled the barbaric way of dealing with garbage. According to activists, such enterprises burn all rubbish without sorting, and heavy metals and dangerous dioxins are thrown into the air. “Do not think that in this plant your garbage just disappears. In fact, it is only modified and transformed into toxic and very hazardous waste and no less dangerous emissions into the air, ”activists warn.

Flue gas cleaning system

One of them - Vera Kerpel - began to engagefight against the incinerator in the winter of 2017. She saw the petition on change.org, read the argument, signed the document - and was sure that construction would be canceled, because the project seemed delusional to her: why burn garbage when you can recycle it? However, after some time, the woman found out that the plant would still be built, and became involved in the movement.

She refers to an EU communiqué that appearedin 2015. The document notes that incineration is the least preferred waste disposal option. The authors advise preventing waste, reusing it and recycling it. However, the recommendations for different EU countries are different. In cases where a country burns little but dumps a lot, it is recommended to continue to develop a system of maximum recycling and move away from this. In cases where a country burns a lot of waste, the communiqué notes that this can hardly be combined with a high percentage of recycled waste. Such countries are advised to gradually decommission waste incineration plants. “When combustion is not subsidized, it will cease to be profitable, and it is unlikely that anyone will build plants in the future,” says Vera. Kerpel describes his requirements simply and refers to Federal Law-89, where a hierarchy of waste management is built. In her opinion, now the authorities are ignoring the law.

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Vera believes that the three-stage cleaning systemnot enough: for example, in Switzerland there are five stages of purification. From the pipe, as promised by plant workers, water vapor and nitrogen are emitted into the atmosphere. At the same time, special sensors monitor the concentration of harmful chemical compounds in plant emissions. Indicators in real time are displayed on monitors in the control room. In addition, sensors monitor the concentration of dust in bag filters where slags settle. If for four hours in a row the figures are above the norm, the plant automatically stops production.

The authorities nevertheless met the public halfway, butpartially: the construction site of the plant has been changed, now it will be located outside of Kazan, although very close to it, to the nearest village of Novonikolaevskoye - 850 m, to the city - 10 km.

Living near the plant - how garbage is burned in Europe and why is it safe there

Officials cite European experience, where“Plants are being built even next to city halls and kindergartens,” this is the case, for example, in Switzerland. Activists parry: despite the fact that they compare similar incinerators, the technologies used in them are different. The key difference is that there is a five-step system for cleaning up emissions, while in Russia a three-step system is used, emission control will not be monitored.

“We are based on the experience of European countries, andthe champion of this, Germany, was able to achieve only 60% of the level of waste disposal for recycling, - said Igor Timofeev, general director of AGK-1, Rostec structure. - It is necessary to do something with 40% of waste. And you can do two things with them - either to bury them in landfills, or burn them in factories, which makes the entire civilized world. ”

In Europe, there are more than 400 such objects. Another 300 are located around the world, in total in 40 countries. Officials refer to Germany more often - Deputy Prime Minister Alexei Gordeyev said: Russia will focus on its experience, despite the fact that “we are 30 years behind”. Now Germany re-uses about 66% of its garbage, when the European average is 46%, electronics are completely recycled. More than 85% of waste paper, cardboard and glass is recycled. But Germany still does not refuse from burning garbage - the country has 73 factories that burn 25% of garbage.

The solution that was used inmost of Europe was just as simple - turning waste into energy: recycle everything you can, and burn the rest and turn it into heat or electricity. Here, diapers, wallpaper and other repair materials, ashes, broken dishes and other household garbage are burned. German eco-activists, against the background of such scale of work of the MSZ, require the introduction of more effective programs to reduce waste that is incinerated.

Send trash by mail

In Russia's neighbor Finland, only 1% of waste goes to landfill. All other waste is recycled or incinerated.

But the Finns, despite the impressive results,continue to experiment, solving important logistics problems - how waste gets to processing plants. In a microdistrict under construction in the suburbs of Helsinki, the Finnish company MariMatic installed a pneumatic post system for waste. It allows you to rid your yards of garbage trucks. Containers for different types of waste, when filled, send waste through an underground pipeline to a sorting station, where the waste is stored and compacted into cargo compartments, it is then transported to recycling and incineration plants.

Glass and metal in the neighborhood are collected in ordinary containers, which are not in every yard. Due to the deposit system, such waste does not form very much.

There are 86 waste incinerators in the United States, theyprovide electricity to 2 million homes. For the last 30 years they have been working on a program whose very name describes what needs to be done with waste: “Reduce consumption, reuse, recycle.” According to it, by the end of 2020, the country plans to achieve recycling of 20 million tons of garbage per year and reduce the number of landfills. After 1997, not a single incineration plant was built there. In Russia, the first factories are just about to be built in 2019.

It is better to burn than choke in the trash

To show how "there", the company "RT-Invest"even organized a trip to Lucerne, where one of these incinerators is located. One of the participants of the press tour was the chief editor of the Kazan Reporter, Anton Reichshtat. He is in favor of building an incinerator.

“We have a Neanderthal culture of handlingwaste, the fact that an environmental disaster did not occur is an accident. We consume and litter like civilized countries, but we haven’t learned how to manage waste, so we have a huge number of landfills, somewhere they turn into real active hotbeds of tension, both from an environmental and social point of view,” notes Reichstat.

In his opinion, Russia had a choice of what to do withrubbish - throw it in landfills, “as in Bangladesh”, or choose “civilized disposal routes” - the incinerator seems to him not a bad option. Reichstat sees only one important problem - the plant is too noisy, as it will use the Russian turbine. At the same time, the number of filters does not bother him - “this is the same technology as abroad, as if we were comparing a car with three and five airbags. But this and that is better than horse-drawn transport. ”

Metaphors with transport come to mind andGreenpeace activist Alexey Kiselev. “The technologies in these factories are the most common. They like to say that even «Mercedes» uses an internal combustion engine that is 150 years old, but it has been modified many times, and new systems have been invented over time. From an efficiency point of view, an internal combustion engine is an extremely inefficient thing. So in all the markets where electric vehicles are introduced, it starts to do poorly.”

However, Kiselev is confident that zero emissions willimpossible at this stage. “There is a law that was formulated by our great compatriot Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov: “Nothing disappears without a trace and does not arise from nothing.” If you have synthesized something somewhere, it has moved into another phase and is unlikely to disappear.” He notes that during combustion there are two types of harmful emissions - the release of dangerous toxic substances contained in the material being burned, and the synthesis of substances that occurs in the cooler parts of the boiler. “Then you need to understand what is being produced and come up with a way to ensure that this air is not released into the atmosphere and does not penetrate the respiratory system of residents who will be nearby. Then there may be at least one purification stage, if some great chemist designs it for you. The question arises whether there will be a person who is willing to pay for it,” notes Kiselev.

He also says that separate collection does not reduce the toxicity of the supplied fuel, this happens only with its “caloric value”.

More polyethylene

In April 2019, it became known that the deputiesState Duma proposed to ban plastic bags in Russia since 2025. First Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Natural Resources, Property and Land Relations Vasily Vlasov sent his proposal to the government of the Russian Federation. However, the cabinet is still silent.

At the same time, according to the “Forecastof the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2024 ”, prepared by the Ministry of Economic Development, in the next five years, reconstruction and commissioning of new polyethylene is planned:“ ZapSibNeftekhim ”- 1.5 million tons per year in 2020,

Novy Urengoy Gas Chemical Complex - 400thousand tons per year in 2021, Nizhnekamskneftekhim - 300 thousand tons per year in 2021 and Angarsk Polymer Plant - 345 thousand tons per year in 2023. The last enterprise stands on the banks of the Angara River, flowing from Lake Baikal and flowing into the Yenisei.

However, Reichstatt has questions about whatengaged activists. “They do not advocate that the filters are the same as in Switzerland, they do not want to move the plant aside, they want to cancel the construction. This is a very speculative opposition between the separate collection and the incinerator - in fact, there is no contradiction. In Switzerland, the collection is excellent, but this does not contradict the fact that 30 incineration plants operate there, this is not a legacy of distant centuries, these are modern plants. Any sane person between the landfill and the filter plant will choose a plant; landfills and so burn, and uncontrolled. Many are scared because invisible enemies like dioxins and furans are really scary. But this protest is rather a religious phenomenon. ”

Whose cleaning system is better

Despite the protests, the government has already purchasedland near the village Osinovo near Kazan. Rosprirodnadzor also approved the construction of an incinerator. Vera Karpel was not surprised by this decision - the woman believes that it was obvious. In addition, the President of Tatarstan Rustam Minnikhanov himself went to a similar plant in Copenhagen to see how it works.

"Go to the incinerator in Copenhagenand assessing ours through him is about the same thing as going to a Ford or Mercedes factory and returning to our AvtoVAZ in Togliatti. There is a completely different plant, a different technology, and at the same time, despite such a fundamental difference, these incinerators are harmful. The latest study, published by the Zero Waste Europe movement, proves that emissions from incineration plants are higher than those declared, ”says Kerpel.

The Copenhagen plant is one of the cleanest in the world. Thanks to the filtration system, sulfur emissions were reduced by 99.5%, and nitrogen oxides - by about 90%. The creators of the plant are so confident in its harmlessness that they opened a ski resort on the roof and offered to hold picnics there.

Comparison of the Russian cleaning system withmost overseas seems odd and to ONF experts. “Unlike Hitachi Zosen Inova’s widely publicized MRZs, which implement five-six-stage cleaning systems, a cheap and primitive three-stage cleaning system with an activated carbon focus is proposed that does not provide the necessary cleaning of flue emissions. This leads, in accordance only with the calculated data presented in the project, to emissions into the air of a set of 46 hazardous substances from the third to the first hazard class in an amount of about 2,400 tons per year, including emissions of about 2 tons per year of substances first hazard class, which are analogues of chemical warfare agents. ” They cite examples: only one plant in Russia will emit as many harmful substances as all operating MSZ in Switzerland, Germany or the USA.

Construction of the first plant in the suburbs alreadybegan. It is planned to start in two years. At the same time, the authorities were between two fires - meetings were being held both against the construction of factories and against landfills.

The problem of landfills with waste and recyclingdebris in Russia is acute - not only Rosprirodnadzor data, but also real case studies speak of this. Suffice it to recall the scandals associated with the dumps near Volokolamsk, where residents complain not only about the unpleasant smell, but also the deterioration of children's health, the development of diseases in adults.

Garbage reform approvedgovernment, finally come into effect only by 2022. But even if all requirements are met in all 85 regions, the scale of changes will hardly be noticeable - by this time only three waste incineration plants will be open across the country, but they will have to allocate more landfills for more landfills - areas occupied by garbage in Russia, grow annually 400 hectares In the next five years, waiting for a breakthrough in this environmental problem will no longer be necessary, and meanwhile, the life of megalopolises and their agglomerations may turn into a game of survival. This is already happening - for example, at the “Krasny Bor” hazardous waste landfill in the Leningrad Region.

UPD

After the publication of the material, a representative of RT-Invest contacted the editorial staff of HighText and answered our questions.

- Why is the grate technology chosen?

— Before finally choosing a technology,in which the plants will be built, we studied in detail the experience of leading countries in waste processing. In particular, these were EU countries - Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Holland, as well as Japan. Grate combustion technology dominates in these and other developed countries. 91% in the EU burn waste on a grate, 6% in a fluidized bed, and 3% are piloting alternatives such as pyrolysis. In Japan, 83% is burned on a grate, 11% in a fluidized bed, 5% by pyrolysis.

World experience shows that to achieve 60%recycling waste is very difficult. If you take recycling together with composting, only Switzerland reached a level of just over 50%. Thermal processing of MSW into energy in these countries ranges from 40 to 50%, recycling is slightly more than 30% and about 20% goes to composting.

- What are the main advantages of this technology?

- About 90% of waste treatment facilities inenergy, built over the past ten years, use the technology of burning on the grate. This technology is well developed: there are now more than 1,500 grate installations with a capacity of 250 million tons operating in the world. The latest gas cleaning systems make it possible to reach emissions 90% below international environmental standards. The best energy efficiency: 600–800 kWh of electricity are delivered to a grid from a ton of waste at the grate to the grid, while gasification and pyrolysis yield 0–500 kWh. The plants continuously monitor all environmental indicators. In addition, there is the possibility of building plants with a capacity of up to 1 million tons per year. Other technologies do not allow building such large facilities (the capacity of plants working on pyrolysis and gasification technologies does not exceed 10–100 thousand tons per year).

- How much will our plants differ technically from foreign ones: levels of cleaning, noise produced, and so on?

- Factories that are built in the Moscow region andThe Republic of Tatarstan will strictly comply with similar projects in Europe. The representatives of the technical partner Hitachi Zosen Inova constantly monitor the facilities.

But given the fact that our facilities are builtnow, more modern technologies are used. In particular, for boilers, and this is the heart of the plant, for the first time, surfacing of a special layer on the elements of the boilers - gas-tight panels - is used. It works on the unique “cold metal transfer” technology (Сold Metal Transfer, SMT), which ensures high quality and productivity of finished products. Namely, it will allow to withstand a temperature of 1,260 ° C when burning waste, which will allow to destroy harmful substances.

Regarding the degrees of gas cleaning: for example, the famous Spittelau plant is located in the city of Vienna. This is not just an incinerator, but a cultural object. And at this plant, a two-stage gas cleaning system is used: the first stage is a fabric filter with activated carbon supply (HOK — specially treated lignite); the second stage is a catalytic system for the suppression of nitrogen oxides.

In our factories will be usedthree-stage cleaning system. The first step is the suppression of nitrogen oxides in the boiler (non-catalytic system); the second stage is a reactor with activated carbon and hydrated lime; the third stage is a fabric filter.

There are plants with six degrees of purification,but their difference is that in the boiler the temperature of combustion is 850 ° C, it does not allow completely destroy harmful substances. They are forced to put six degrees of purification. In the factories we build, the flue gases will burn at a temperature of 1,260 ° C, and then pass through the afterburner. At the output, there can be no dioxins, since all these complex compounds will be decomposed into components: temperature, carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. And these substances will settle in multistage filters.

A very accurate example for comparison is Cory Riverside Energy, the Riverside plant in London, which has the same three-stage system, completely similar to the plants in the Moscow region.

- Will you, along with incineration, introduce waste recycling?

- In total, about 60 million tons are produced in the countrysolid municipal waste per year, and this figure is constantly growing. The better the population lives, the higher the growth rate of waste, especially in large cities. The best model is complex treatment, when all the waste that can be recycled is processed into secondary raw materials. And only "tails" from which it is impossible to extract useful fractions are sent to generate electricity. So many countries have come to zero waste disposal, never to create garbage landfills.

The first thing you need in an integrated system -reduce waste to the maximum. The second stage is to collect waste separately as soon as possible so that they are not spoiled components and that they can be recycled. The threshold of 100% recycling could not reach any country in the world, always about 50-60% remains, and of them it is necessary to produce electricity.

Separate waste collection (RDF) is the first step inbig complex circulation system that we create. The RSO in the Moscow region started with the “junk” reform on January 1, 2019. All regional operators operate according to the standards that have been chosen in the government of the Ministry of Defense. In total, there are seven operators in this region, the three largest of them belong to our group of companies, more than half of the region. Therefore, it was important for us to launch pilot cities and find out how willing people are to share. Even before the new year, we introduced RNO in five cities near Moscow (Ruza, Naro-Fominsk, Volokolamsk, Silver Ponds, Zaraysk). The system is very simple - two-container. In the courtyards are blue and gray tanks. Blue is intended for dry waste: plastic, paper, glass, metal, and gray - for mixed waste: it is organic matter, contaminated packaging, and personal care products. A blue car arrives behind blue containers, and a gray one, respectively. Up to 80% can be sent for processing from dry waste, but gray ones are also sorted, up to 7% of useful recyclable material can be extracted.

The company "RT-Invest" will build eight complexeswaste sorting in the Moscow region. Three of them will be commissioned in the third quarter of this year. We are also developing the direction of processing. In particular, our plans include the launch of processing enterprises.

— Do you have a dialogue with activists who oppose the construction of factories? 

- We are convinced that the existence of public controlcaring citizens at all stages from design to commissioning is extremely necessary. It is important to build an open and constructive dialogue with the public. Everyone should work with the protests, first of all - business, civil society, the state, public organizations and the people themselves who want to improve their living standards. But we must understand that the anxiety of the population is caused by unreliable and deliberately distorted information emanating from opponents of the project. Often criticism comes from people using the topic to attract attention to their person. We, as an investor, carry out systematic work to inform the public about our project through all kinds of communication channels.

- Will waste incineration plants be used for payback or is this a company that will need to subsidize the state?

- Our projects are structured so that they do notgovernment money invested. The state supported the project and implemented incentive measures through the wholesale market. Thus, we have a yield of 12–14%, which attracted investors - VEB, Rosnano, Gazprombank, who invested in the project. This is a commercial project.

Return on investment will be made bysales of power on the wholesale electricity and capacity market (WECM) to large consumers. This is a mechanism, the so-called green tariff, under which capacity supply agreements (DCS) are concluded with wholesale market participants in the case when new generating capacities are built.

The return on investment for the project in accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 240 is 15 years after the facility is commissioned.