Physicists for the first time were able to make liquid droplets square and acute-angled

Liquids in our daily life are in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, such as milk

dissolves completely in coffee, and the oil floats on the surface of the water.

The authors of the new work decided to find out what would happen if the fluids were fixed in an unstable state, before they came to thermodynamic equilibrium.

Things in a state of equilibrium tend topretty boring. It is interesting to take systems out of equilibrium and see if nonequilibrium structures can be controlled or how useful they can be. Biological life itself is a good example of the complex behavior of groups of molecules outside of thermodynamic equilibrium.

Jaakko Timonen, Research Director and Professor at the Department of Applied Physics

Researchers used a combination of oils withdifferent conductivity and dielectric constant. When they turned on an electric field over such a mixture, the charge accumulated at the interface between the oils. Therefore, the charge density drives the interface out of thermodynamic equilibrium and turns it into unusual formations.

As a result, the authors were able to achieve the fact that a two-dimensional layer appeared at the interface between the liquids, in which they saw the formation of completely unexpected drops and patterns.

Next, scientists tried to change the characteristicsapplied electric field: they were able to get droplets in the form of squares or hexagons, with straight sides. This is impossible in nature, since bubbles and drops only form spheres.

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