Scientists have created a model of the early universe and may have solved two of the main mysteries of the cosmos

The authors of the new work said that their new assumption will help connect the two main mysteries in modern

cosmology: the nature of dark matter and the history of cosmic inflation.

Many cosmologists believe that when the universewas young (that is, less than a fraction of a second old), it experienced a period of incredibly rapid expansion, it is called inflation. This inflationary era seriously affected the future evolution of the Universe, as it laid the foundation for the development of stars, galaxies and clusters. It is still unknown what caused inflation, how long it lasted and why it stopped.

When inflation ended, it caused the appearanceall known particles. Presumably, after the same event, dark matter appeared. Cosmologists don't know for sure what dark matter is made of, but there is plenty of evidence that it is an unknown kind of particle. Whatever it is, it accounts for over 80% of all matter in the universe.

Physicists from the Institute of Physics in Helsinki proposeda new mechanism for generating large amounts of dark matter in the early universe. And it is based only on gravity. According to the authors, the inflaton and dark matter do not interact with each other, so the dark matter particle is not formed in the usual way at the end of inflation.

The hypothetical particle inflaton was consideredresponsible for the rapid expansion of the universe. It was assumed that, like the Higgs boson, it was too obscure for direct observation. It has even been hypothesized that the Higgs boson is the inflaton. But when the Higgs boson was finally spotted during experiments at the European accelerator in 2012, it turned out to be too heavy, says Marcin Hshonszcz of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Therefore, scientists were looking for something similar, but with a smaller mass.

The authors of the work investigated the behavior of the inflaton right before its decay. At the end of inflation, right before it disappears and creates a huge amount of particles in our universe.

The authors found that when the graviton appearswhen particles interact, it provides channels for the decay of the inflaton into dark matter particles. Then these particles of dark matter would already be present in the universe before the rest of the matter appeared. Most physicists believe that the graviton, like the photon, is a massless particle, so gravity propagates indefinitely throughout the universe.

According to the authors, this mechanism only works when space is doing something intense, like expanding rapidly during inflation.

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