Shock gravitational wave releases information during the death of a black hole

One of the biggest mysteries of black holes is the information paradox that arises from conflicting

predictions of general relativity andquantum mechanics. Researchers from the Canadian University of New Brunswick have shown that the paradox can be resolved by taking into account the effects of quantum gravity. Astrophysicists believe that when a black hole dies, the information it absorbed during its lifetime is released in the form of a gravitational shock wave.

According to the classical general theoryrelativity, all the matter from which a black hole was formed ends up at its center (at the singularity point) and remains there forever. Stephen Hawking, in contrast, showed in one of his major works that black holes radiate energy and slowly disappear.

However, as the authors of the study note,The work suggests that the radiation emitted by black holes does not contain all the information about the matter that went into its formation. It turns out that part of the information is lost irretrievably, which contradicts the principles of quantum mechanics.

“We studied the problem using a simple dustmatter that does not exert pressure because it is the simplest type of matter. Its movement is described by a controlled equation that can be solved on a laptop, Vikar Hussein, co-author of the study, said in an interview with “This equation is a modified version of the classical Einstein equations that includes the fundamental discreteness of space at the microscopic level.”

The researchers followed the evolution of the cloudcollapsing dust particles until it formed a black hole. Godunov's numerical method allowed scientists to study the motion of matter towards a point even inside the region of a black hole, where in the classical solution there would be a singularity.

Quantum gravity corrected equation,derived by Hussein and his colleagues solves the singularity problem more dynamically than classical models. In particular, it is assumed that matter falls into the center of a black hole, reaches a high but finite density, and then bounces back, forming a shock wave.

The effects of quantum gravity are important for shockwaves and allow it to move outward inside the black hole, which is impossible using classical equations. At the same time, the curvature of space-time becomes large, but never diverges (as happens in the classical theory).

Study authors

Using the Godunov method, researcherswere also able to calculate the lifetime of a black hole from its formation to its disappearance, when a shock wave emerges from the event horizon and it begins to disappear. The lifetime of a black hole calculated in the paper is much shorter than the evaporation time predicted by Hawking.

This, as the researchers note, suggests that their model can help solve the problem of information loss, but more research will be required to confirm it.

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