Traces of the Neanderthal genome and a previously unknown human ancestor were found in human DNA. They affect our sense of smell so far.

Although the human genome was completely sequenced in 2003, scientists still do not fully understand that

happens in some of its segments. One of these dark spots is a centromere - a small section of the genome between the X and Y chromosomes, which is full of repetitive sequences. Some researchers call it the "dark heart" of human DNA.

This difficult to decrypt area canhide some of the most ancient parts of human DNA that can make geneticists understand how some specific traits came about as a result of evolution. The fact is that this site has undergone minimal changes over many generations.

Researchers map haplotypes -clusters of the genome that are located at the centromere and are usually examined as a group, and not as separate parts. Then, scientists studied an open database of 1,000 genomes designed to demonstrate genetic variations in human DNA.

In the centromere of chromosome 11, genetics discoveredDifferent haplotypes of Neanderthal DNA that affect modern humans — 34 of our 400 genes associated with odorant receptors, were found in the chromosome of 11 sangaps.

In chromosome 12, scientists have found gene sequences that seem to be inherited from more primitive human relatives than Neanderthals — so far this species is unknown to science.

Previously, a team of scientists led by Dr. YangHui from the Shanghai Institute of Biological Sciences at the Chinese Academy of Sciences proposed a new method for editing genes. It allows point to change genes and reduces the risk of damage to RNA.