Traces of the Neanderthal genome and a previously unknown human ancestor were found in human DNA. They affect our sense of smell so far.

Although the human genome was completely sequenced in 2003, scientists still do not fully understand what

occurs in some of its segments.One of these dark spots is the centromere, a small region of the genome between the X and Y chromosomes that is full of repetitive sequences. Some researchers call it the "dark heart" of human DNA.

This difficult to decrypt area canhide some of the most ancient parts of human DNA that can make geneticists understand how some specific traits came about as a result of evolution. The fact is that this site has undergone minimal changes over many generations.

Researchers have compiled a map of haplotypes -genome clusters that are located at the centromere and are usually studied as a group rather than as individual parts. The scientists then examined a public database of 1,000 genomes designed to show genetic variation in human DNA.

In the centromere of chromosome 11, geneticists discovereddifferent Neanderthal DNA haplotypes that influence modern humans - 34 of our 400 odorant receptor-related genes were found on chromosome 11 of the sangaps.

In chromosome 12, scientists have found gene sequences that seem to be inherited from more primitive human relatives than Neanderthals — so far this species is unknown to science.

Previously, a team of scientists led by Dr. YangHuya from the Shanghai Institute of Biological Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has proposed a new gene editing method. It allows targeted changes in genes and reduces the risk of RNA damage.