The entire previous week has passed in anticipation of the delivery of modern multiple launch rocket systems for
- What do the abbreviations MLRS M270 and M142 HIMARS mean?
- Place in the history of 227 caliber missiles
- History of MLRS M270
- M270 modifications
- History of the M142 HIMARS MLRS
- Ammunition for M270 and M142 HIMARS: 227mm and 610mm rockets
- 227-mm MFOM rockets for MLRS: guided and unguided
- 610mm long-range precision AFOM/ATACMS missiles
- Fog of war: when will all these MLRS appear on the front lines of the Armed Forces of Ukraine?
What do the abbreviations MLRS and HIMARS mean?
In general, MLRS just means MultipleLaunch Rocket System, which is an analogue of the widely used term MLRS (multiple launch rocket systems). Accordingly, MLRS is both an M270 and M142 HIMARS system, since they both belong to the MLRS. In turn, HIMARS (pronounced "Hymars") is an abbreviation for the High Mobility Artillery Rocket System - a highly mobile artillery rocket fire system. This name emphasizes two key differences between the M142 HIMARS and the M270 - higher mobility (wheels instead of tracks) and half the firepower (1 standard package that accommodates 6 standard 227 mm caliber missiles or 1 ATACMS 610 mm caliber medium-range tactical missile, instead of 2 for M270).
Photo: lockheed martin
Place in the history of 227 caliber missiles
To represent the firepower of 227 caliber, one cancompare it with the MLRS in service with the Armed Forces today (Wikipedia has an interesting summary table comparing a huge number of rocket artillery systems). As a legacy from the USSR, we inherited the BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launchers (a modernized Ukrainian version is called Verba) 122 mm caliber, BM-27 Uragan (Ukrainian developments Bastion-03 and Burevіy) 220 mm and BM-30 Smerch (Ukrainian analogue Olkha) 300 mm. Accordingly, the 227 mm MLRS is closest to the 220 mm systems, but such a comparison is very conditional, because for the M270 and HIMARS missiles are produced by the Lockheed Martin division called Missiles and Fire Control, and among them there are guided and high-precision ones. Whereas the Russian and Ukrainian MLRS (especially the old Soviet systems used on both sides of the front) simply do not have guided missiles.
To complete the picture, it is worth comparing alsoMLRS range 227 mm compared to Soviet systems. As you can see in the infographic, comparing the M270 and M142 systems with the Uragan systems will not be in favor of the latter, because the range of 227 mm ammunition starts from 45 km, while the capabilities of the Hurricanes are limited to 35 km. Of course, Smerch is capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 70 km, but the M270 and M142 have an answer to this in the form of the possibility of using high-precision missiles at a distance of up to 300 km (in fact, new generation missiles are capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 500 km, But more on that later).
That is, the strategy for using MLRS among NATO countriesradically different from the strategy of the remaining Ukrainian and Russian armies from the Soviet Union. The focus is not on gradation by caliber and range of use (and, accordingly, a powerful salvo, up to 40 missiles in the Grad / Verba mount), but on the versatility and mobility of platforms that use a different range of missiles of two calibers used depending on tactical tasks. As well as the accuracy of the defeat, including areas due to cluster munitions. The unification of the nomenclature, among other things, allows you to save resources on maintenance of equipment, logistics, and so on, which is of great importance for modern warfare. That is, only two MLRS platforms - M270 and M142 replace almost the entire zoo of rocket artillery inherited from the Soviet Union, ranging from three types of MLRS to numerous types of tactical missiles (Tochka, Oka) and new Iskanders. Each such system requires its own infrastructure in the form of launchers, command and transport-loading vehicles, further complicating the situation with repairs in the field.
Photo: lockheed martin
History of MLRS M270
In the early 1970s, the Soviet Union had a clearadvantage in rocket artillery over NATO forces. The Soviet MLRS tactic was to bombard with large numbers of truck-mounted multiple rocket launchers (primarily the BM-21 Grad). Saturating the war zone with thousands of missiles and ensuring that only a few of them will hit specific targets, having an additional psychological effect on enemy soldiers. In contrast, US gunners have traditionally favored cannon artillery, due to its relative accuracy and savings in ammunition, over rockets for "area fire".
Photo: MLRS M270 of the armed forces of South Korea on exercises (Wikipedia)
The situation in the perception of this type of weaponschanged after the 1973 Yom Kippur War in Israel, where the MLRS showed good performance. Back in the second half of the 1960s, the US Army Missile Forces initiated a program to create a multiple launch rocket and artillery system with the militant name MARS (Multiple Artillery Rocket System). In March 1974, the US Army created new requirements for the development of a rocket launcher called the General Support Rocket System (GSRS). It was assumed that it would be used to combat enemy air defenses and for counter-battery fire, freeing artillery units for direct support of ground forces. At the beginning of 1980, the development program was renamed and received the name by which we know it now, that is, MLRS. At this stage, the military departments and companies of the military industry of Great Britain, Germany and France joined it, as a result, 4 states had a hand in the development of the M270 in one way or another.
The M270 MLRS weapon system is also known underthe common name SPLL (Self-Propelled Loading / Launcher - Self-propelled boot-launcher). SPLL consists of three main subsystems mounted on one machine: M269 LLM (Loader Launcher Module - a loading and launching module, which also contains an electronic fire control system installed on an M993 transport vehicle, which, in turn, is a derivative of the BMP chassis Bradley.
According to Cold War doctrine, tacticsThe use of the M270 was that the vehicles had to covertly disperse individually, then, at the right time, move to a firing position, launch rockets, and then immediately retreat to the reload point, and then move to a new hidden position, from which to exit to the next shooting area. This shoot-and-scoot "shoot-and-run" tactic (in theory) avoided being vulnerable to Soviet counter-battery fire. A full salvo of the M270, consisting of twelve 227 mm M26 rockets, hit 7728 anti-personnel submunitions (bomblets) on an area of 24 hectares in less than one minute. And one MLRS battery (9 units), firing 108 missiles, had firepower equivalent to 33 cannon artillery battalions.
Photo: M270 system with missile transport module, launcher and command center inside the M577 command vehicle (in the background) (Wikipedia)
An important advantage of this system is the launcher, which allows you to quickly reload both launch containers using your own winch (in the video below).
The first combat use of the M270, delivered toarmament in 1982 occurred on January 18, 1991, during Operation Desert Storm, when an M270 battery fired eight ATACMS missiles at Iraqi air defense facilities. In one engagement, three MLRS batteries fired 287 missiles at 24 separate targets in less than five minutes, which would have taken an artillery battalion to fire over an hour. In early February 1991, the largest night firing of MLRS in history took place: 312 missiles were fired in one volley. Of the 57,000 artillery rounds fired in that war, 6,000 were MLRS rockets and another 32 were ATACMS missiles.
For more than 40 years of history of the MLRS M270suffered several upgrades and modifications for different countries. The current version in production is the M270A2 (third generation with a range of up to 500 km using PrSM missiles).
- M270 - the initial version of the MLRS of the 1982 model of the yearcombat load of 12 missiles in two six-seat launch containers. This armored tracked mobile launcher uses a Bradley chassis and has a high cross-country ability.
- M270 IPDS - an interim update created toensure the use of long-range GPS-enabled ATACMS Block IA missiles until a sufficient number of M270A1 launchers are produced.
- M270A1 - the first major modernization in 2005 forUS Army (and then for a number of other states). The launcher received an improved fire control system. This made it possible to significantly speed up the firing of new types of ammunition, including GPS-guided guided missiles.
- M270B1 - an upgrade for the British army, similar to the A1, but additionally includes a reinforced armor package to better protect the crew from terrorist improvised explosive devices.
- M270C1 - An upgrade option proposed by Lockheed Martin using a universal fire control system like HIMARS (UFCS) instead of IFCS.
- MARS2/LRU - European modernization of the M270 with the participationGermany, Italy and France. MARS2 is equipped with another fire control system (EFCS - European Fire Control System), developed by Airbus Defense and Space. EFCS allows M31, M31A1, M32, AT2 and 110mm missiles to be fired, but not M26, M26A1 and M30, to ensure full compliance with the Convention on Cluster Munitions that the EU countries have ratified (unlike, for example, Ukraine and Russia).
- M270D1 - includes a new fire control system,which allows you to launch high-precision GPS-guided missiles - GMLRS and ATACMS. The upgrade package consists of a new computer, location device, GPS antenna, launch control unit, displays, and remote control. Current operators include the US, UK, Bahrain and Finland.
For those who want to know more
- The M270 crew consists of 3 people: installation commander, gunner and driver
- Boeing C-17 and Lockheed C-5 aircraft can be used to transport the M270
- Reload time is 4 minutes for M270 and 3 minutes for M270A1
- Powerplant: V8 Cummins VTA903 turbocharged diesel 500 hp
- Maximum highway speed: 64 km/h
- Power reserve: 480 km
- The average cost of the M270 is 2.3 million dollars
- In total, more than 1,300 M270s were produced, of which about 1,000 are in service with the United States.
- The US military refers to the M270 as a "personal shotguncommander" or "buckshot on the battlefield." It is also often referred to as the "gypsy van" because crews store additional equipment (camouflage nets, cots, refrigerators, and personal items) on top of the vehicle, as there is not enough room for items in the launcher itself.
History of the M142 HIMARS MLRS
M142 HIMARS is a light (wheeled)version of the M270 multiple launch rocket system. HIMARS uses the same uniform container pod as the M270, which can hold 6 227mm missiles or one 610mm missile. The only difference is that the M270 uses two of these containers, allowing you to make a salvo of 12 missiles, not 6. The system was developed in the late 1990s for the US Army and is mounted on the chassis of a standard M1140 army truck. Adopted in 2003, the US Marine Corps was the first to receive it.
The chassis was originally manufactured by BAESystems Mobility & Protection Systems. In 2010, Oshkosh Corporation took over chassis production. Since 2017, both the chassis, the launcher and the missiles have been manufactured by Lockheed Martin Missiles & Fire Control. MLRS M142 HIMARS is in service with the armies of the United States, Singapore, UAE, Jordan and Romania. Poland announced plans to buy 160 M142 launchers for use on its own chassis (although on May 26, 2022, the Minister of Defense announced about 500 launchers). Interest in this MLRS has been announced in recent years by Australia, Taiwan, Canada, Hungary, the Netherlands, Qatar, the Philippines and Sweden.
For those who want to know more
- The windows of the M142 HIMARS launcher are made of glass and layers of sapphire
- For transportation, C-130 Hercules aircraft (the most massive transport aircraft in the world) can be used.
- The cost of the HIMARS launcher and all necessary ammunition is more than $ 5 million
- The M142 HIMARS crew consists of 3 people: crew commander, driver and launcher operator
- Speed up to 85 km/h
- Power reserve 480 km
- More than 540 units produced with more than 2 million operating hours
Ammunition for M270 and M142 HIMARS: 227mm and 610mm rockets
For MLRS M270 and M142 HIMARS, there are as many as 6types of missiles, including the Reduced-Range Practice Rocket (RRPR), which is just a blank without a warhead and a fairing with a range of 15 kilometers. The remaining missiles are divided into 2 large subclasses: MFOM (MLRS Family of Munitions - MLRS family of ammunition) caliber 227 mm and 610 mm AFOM (Army TACMS Family of Munitions - a family of ammunition ATACMS, which, in turn, stands for Army TACtical Missile System, that is, the Army Tactical Missile System).
227-mm MFOM rockets for MLRS: guided and unguided
If you do not take into account the RRPR training rocket, thenall 227-mm rockets for MLRS (or MLRS, to make it clear that we are talking only about the systems to which this text is devoted) are divided into unguided (the most massive and cheapest to manufacture) and guided. Guided missiles, in turn, are divided into two categories: GMLRS (Guided MLRS, that is, guided MLRS) and ER GMLRS (Extended-Range GMLRS - extended-range guided missiles).
- M26 — unguided rocket category DPICM(Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions - dual-use cluster munition) with 644 M77 submunitions. Its range is 32 km. It is worth noting here that this is the same non-conventional weapon, banned, for example, in the European Union, but used by the US army. One result of the use of such missiles is the abundance of remaining unexploded submunitions, the disposal of which after the war will require enormous resources (plus civilian casualties are inevitable even after the war).
- M26A1 - extended range missile up to 45 km and 518 M85 submunitions (improved version of M77 submunitions)
- M26A2 - transitional version of the M26A1, but with M77 submunitions. Used before the M85 submunition entered service.
- M27 - a completely inert training container, created for LLM loading training by the MLRS crew
- M28 - a training version of the M26 missile, which uses containers with ballast and smoke marking instead of a payload
- M28A1 - version of the M28 without a fairing and with a reduced range (the same RRPR).
Photo: "Steel Rain" - M77 submunition used by the M26 missile (Wikipedia)
Guided MLRS missiles are next
- M30 - the basic and most massive modificationhigh-precision missile with a range of up to 70 km, the standard load includes 404 M85 submunitions. With its advent, the M270 and M142 MLRS HIMARS were nicknamed the "70-kilometer sniper rifle."
- M30A1 - version of the M30 with an alternative warhead, in which the submunitions are replaced by tungsten balls for destruction. Its advantage is that it leaves no unexploded ordnance behind.
- M30A2 (also known as XM403) - version of the M30 with an alternative high-explosive fragmentation warhead carrying 90 kg of submunitions and high explosive. Designed to hit targets with a large area.
- M31 - a derivative of the M30 missile with a unitary high-explosive fragmentation warhead weighing 90 kg for use in urban and mountainous areas. Has improved modifications M31A1 and M31A2.
In March 2021, Lockheed Martin introduced a new generation of guided missiles for the M270 and M142 HIMARS MLRS - ER GMLRS (Extended-Range GMLRS).They are distinguished by an increased range of up to 150 kilometers and unpretentiousness to weather conditions. There is little information about the new missile, the manufacturer reports that it is compatible with the HIMARS MLRS and the latest M270A2. Together with the rocket, a new unified container for MLRS was introduced, allowing the use of 10-inch caliber rockets (254 mm instead of the current 227 mm).
Illustration: lockheed martin
610mm long-range precision AFOM/ATACMS missiles
Instead of six 227-mm rockets in the standardcontainer for MLRS one large ATACMS missile (aka MGM-140) of 610 mm caliber can be used. This is a surface-to-surface missile with a solid-propellant engine and a range of up to 310 km. Its development began back in 1980, and the first combat use was during Operation Desert Storm in 1991, where 32 such missiles were successfully used.
Over the more than 30-year history of this rocket, it has received several levels of modernization and modifications:
- MGM-140A ATACMS Block 1 - basic version of the 1991 model rocket witha firing range of 165 km and an inertial navigation system that gives a CEP (circular probable deviation) of 250 meters. The warhead contained a cassette filled with 950 M74 type submunitions.
- MGM-140B ATACMS Block 1A - Upgraded modification, in whichthe inertial navigation system was supplemented with GPS, which made it possible to reduce the CEP to 100 meters while increasing the flight range to 300 km. The cassette warhead has been reduced from 560 to 160 kg and contains 275 M74 submunitions.
- MGM-140B ATACMS Block 1A Unitary - modification of the Block 1A missile with a high-explosive warhead and a vertical end section of the trajectory for hitting armored targets.
- MGM-140C / MGM-164A ATACMS Block 2 - a missile with a warhead, including 13 homing combat elements. The firing range is 140 km with a warhead weight of 165 kg and a KVO of 200 meters.
- MGM-164B ATACMS Block 2A - version that did not go into serial productiona missile equipped with a cluster warhead with 6 homing intelligent warheads, as well as a new combined homing head that searches for a target in the millimeter-wave radio wave and two infrared bands. Firing range up to 220 km with CVO less than 100 meters.
- MGM-140E ATACMS Block 1A Unitary (QRU) / MGM-168A ATACMS Block 4A - modification of the ATACMS missile with a high-explosive fragmentation warhead WDU-18 weighing 227 kg, a firing range of up to 270 km and a CEP of 20 meters. Adopted in 2003.
Precision Strike Missile (PrSM): the latest high-precision missiles for MLRS
Precision Strike Missile (PrSM) isLockheed Martin's next-generation high-precision surface-to-surface missile completed in 2021. It features an open system architecture, is modular for future growth, and is compatible with the HIMARS and M270 MLRS. This missile is capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 500 kilometers. It is unpretentious to weather conditions and occupies two times less space than an ATACMS missile, which makes it possible to place not one, but two such missiles in a standard container for MLRS.
Fog of war or when will all these MLRS appear on the front lines of the Armed Forces of Ukraine?
So, we figured out what is the advantage of MLRS M270and M142 HIMARS in front of similar systems in service with Ukraine and Russia. These are versatile platforms ideal for shoot-and-run tactics that are advantageous in modern warfare. Superior to the old Soviet (and their modernized counterparts) in efficiency due to the use of guided and precision-guided munitions (and their diverse range, solving specific tactical tasks in the best way). At the same time, they have a much larger range than the enemy's MLRS. Finally, the possibility of using ATACMS tactical missiles can significantly increase the range of missile weapons of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, increasing this distance from 120 km (the capabilities of the most “long-range weapon of the Armed Forces of Ukraine - Tochka-U missiles”) to 300 km (and in the future - up to 500 km). The versatility of the M270 and M142 is capable of transforming them in one fell swoop from our familiar multiple launch rocket systems into high-precision tactical missiles. Yes, the cost of one such missile can easily go for a million dollars, but here the lend-lease law comes to the rescue, according to which you won’t have to pay for the used ammunition, in principle (from what Russian propagandists who talk about what kind of lend-lease more than one generation of Ukrainians will have to pay, it starts to burn like a tank after getting to know the FGM-148 Javelin).
Thus, the question comes to the fore:when will all these excellent systems not only get to Ukraine, but will already be used on the front line? The answer lies in the intricate intricacies of politics and military stratagem, which are best described by the saying (no matter how cynical it may sound now) "war is bullshit, the main thing is maneuvers." We, of course, do not mean its literal, but allegorical meaning. Let's consider two diametrically opposite situations: ideally winning and ideally losing. In the first case, politicians and the military do everything as transparently and clearly as possible, involving the media and demonstrating how, when, how much and what kind of equipment arrived in Ukraine (and by what routes). Everything happens immediately and live. In the second case, on the contrary, politicians and the military avoid specifics, constantly refer to the need to decide something else, agree on and discuss it, delaying the issue of supplies indefinitely. Obviously, both options are beneficial only for our opponent. Because in the first case, he will know too much, which will allow him to take some kind of countermeasures. Ultimately, this will only delay the approach of final victory. In the second case, and at all, we are talking about a psychological defeat (and therefore the forces of enemy propaganda are aimed precisely at convincing us of the reality of the scenario in which Ukraine will not receive any MLRS M270 and M142 HIMARS).
It is obvious that the correct supply option and their"Illumination" by official sources will be some kind of intermediate. And here the “fog of war” comes to our aid, allowing us to use informational smoke screens around the situation. For example, to officially announce the intentions of deliveries only after the weapons are already physically located in Ukraine (at least in order not to expose the convoys to unnecessary risks). You can also hide the quantity, range of ammunition supplied, and in general, the less information you give, the better. An excellent example of such smoke screens are, for example, statements by the Pentagon that smoke the situation around the supply of MLRS: on the one hand, there is “escalation concern”, on the other hand, “we would not want to limit the Armed Forces in the use of weapons to protect sovereignty.” How to interpret it? “No one knows that,” as the classic said. Another example: The Polish Minister of Defense recently tweeted that his country intends to buy 500 M142 HIMARS launchers. Despite the fact that from 2005 to 2020, only 414 of them were produced. Why does Poland need more M142 installations than the United States has? "I don't know anyone."But it is reliably known that this month US President Biden visited the Lockheed Martin plant. Specifically, that plant does not produce missiles for the M270 and M142, but FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank systems, but the President of the United States cannot visit each of the 11 Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control plants, right? His visit is just symbolic. For example, it demonstrates to the whole world that Lockheed Martin needs to increase the production of its missiles. And as soon as possible.
In fact, most military analyststhey are inclined to think that at the current stage of the war, the only thing in which Russia has an important advantage over the Armed Forces of Ukraine is the number of cannon and rocket artillery (and ammunition for them). That is why the supply of 155 mm artillery systems to Ukraine is so important (the same Caesar, M109 and M777). The supply of MLRS M270 and M142 HIMARS jet systems will further increase the capabilities of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, especially in terms of range. And even if Ukraine does not receive ATACMS-type missiles and even more so PrSM immediately (and most likely it will), then weeks later (the more complex the equipment, the more time the Armed Forces need to master it) we will already see the result of using these MLRS in the news . Remember, in the end, that two months ago, the supply of Harpoon anti-ship missiles looked like an unattainable goal, and today they are already in service with the Armed Forces of Ukraine. With MLRS M270 and M142 HIMARS everything will be the same, but faster.