Check out the most beautiful pictures of Hubble. What has the telescope seen in 30 years?

The Hubble Space Telescope has changed our understanding of the Universe, and its view from orbit, caused a stream of cosmic

discoveries that forever changed astronomy.From researching dark matter to searching for the age of the universe, Hubble has helped answer some of the most important astronomical questions of our time and unveiled mysteries we never knew existed. Throughout history, humanity has never looked at the universe with greater clarity and focus.

Telescope in 2002. Photo: NASA

Why send a telescope into space?

Hubble was designed as an observatory for the generaldestination intended for the study of the universe in the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. To date, the telescope has studied over 40,000 space objects, providing views that astronomers have not been able to capture from Earth.

Besides the fact that the earth's atmosphere is completelyBlocks light of certain wavelengths, it is composed of moving pockets of air that cause twinkling stars in the night sky. This movement blurs images taken with telescopes on the ground. Hubble was launched into orbit above the atmosphere to avoid these effects.

NGC 3147 - 130 million spiral galaxylight years from Earth. Hubble's clear vision of space allows it to capture details such as clusters of young blue stars, pinkish nebulae, and dust streaks visible in the galaxy's graceful winding arms. Sources: NASANASA, ESA, S. Bianchi (Università degli Studi Roma Tre University), A. Laor (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology) and M. Chiaberge (ESA, STScI and JHU)

Although the Hubble mirror is much smaller thanthe largest ground-based observatories, the unique position of the telescope above the Earth's atmosphere gives it incredible clarity. As the telescope orbits the Earth, its mirror collects light from space, collecting images and data. For some of Hubble's deepest images, the telescope stared at the same point in the sky for several days, trying to capture as much of the faint glow of the distant universe as possible.

Cosmic discoveries

When the Hubble Telescope was launched, there wasit is known that the age of the universe was 10-20 billion years. By studying a specific class of stars that can be used to determine distance, Hubble was able to help narrow that broad figure down to about 13.8 billion years, a number now used to understand the timeline and evolution of stars, galaxies, and more.

RS Puppis is a variable Cepheid star,which rhythmically brighter over time and darkens in a predictable manner. Using the known brightness of the variable Cepheids, astronomers can determine the distances to these stars. Sources: NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage Group (STScI / AURA) Hubble-Europe Collaboration

Hubble discovered supermassive black holeslurking in the hearts of galaxies, and has helped map the presence of elusive dark matter around galaxy clusters. But one of the strangest discoveries was the discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating due to the presence of a still unidentified and previously unknown "dark energy." Thanks to its ability to deliver pristine images of the universe to Earth, Hubble has often shown humanity how much more it still has to learn about space.

Hubble time machine

The cosmos is so vast that even lightit takes a long time to travel through the vast space between objects. The light of the Earth's Moon takes about 1.3 light seconds to reach us, so when we look at the Moon in the sky, we see it as it appeared 1.3 seconds ago.

The Hubble Extreme Deep Field contains 5,500galaxies, including some of them, which are 13.2 billion years old. Authors: NASA, European Space Agency, G. Illingworth, D. Magee and P. Oesch (University of California, Santa Cruz), R. Bowens (University of Leiden) and the HUDF09 team.

The light of the most distant space objects begantravel in space billions of years ago. When he finally arrives at our corner of the universe, he shows us the universe as it was in the distant past. By capturing the faint light of the early Universe, Hubble can see galaxies as they were billions of years ago, showing us how they evolved and evolved over time.

We cannot watch galaxies change orstars - they evolve in time for billions of years. But by looking at them at different stages of its existence, Hubble has helped demonstrate how galaxies change and grow as a result of interactions and collisions. He gave us pictures of stars at different stages of stellar life and showed how they merge and ignite in clouds of gas and dust, breathe out the outer layers in the form of nebulae and explode like supernovae.

The planets of the solar system

Hubble was used to research everything:from the weather on the planets in our solar system to the birth of planets around other stars. He studied the composition of the atmospheres of these extrasolar planets or exoplanets and may have obtained one of the first images of such a planet in visible light.

In this telescope image of JupiterHubble, the Great Red Spot is visible on the gas giant planet - a huge storm raging in the planet's atmosphere. Authors: NASA, ESA, A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center) and M. H. Wong (University of California, Berkeley).

Hubble has become an important witness to the events in oursolar system - he observed collisions of comets and asteroids with Jupiter, storms and auroras on neighboring planets, decaying asteroids and comets passing by. Our cosmic backyard still has many surprises: Hubble was the first to discover the rings and moons around Uranus and the moon around Pluto. Thanks to Hubble, we have a much better understanding of what our solar system actually looks like and how it works.

How did the Hubble discoveries affect humanity?

In 1609, observations by an Italian scientistGalileo Galilei finally showed that there are celestial bodies (the moons of Jupiter) that do not revolve around the Earth. This revolutionary discovery forever changed our understanding of the Universe centered at the center of the Earth.

A new revolution in astronomy

Almost four centuries after the launch of the spaceNASA's Hubble Telescope aboard the spacecraft Discovery in 1990 marked the beginning of a new revolution in astronomy. Created as a partnership between the US space program and the European Space Agency, Hubble orbits 547 km above the Earth's surface. This vantage point allows Hubble to observe astronomical objects and phenomena more consistently and in greater detail than is usually possible from ground-based observatories. Over the past 30 years, Hubble observations have played a key role in detecting and characterizing the mysterious dark energy that seems to permeate all space in the universe. Results like these have changed our fundamental understanding of space.

All communications with Hubble take place inThe Mission Operations Room, where engineers submit weekly observation plans, monitor the health and safety of the Hubble and eliminate any anomalies that arise.

Photo: NASA

Impact on the scientific community

During the third decade of operationHubble continues to be extremely productive. The orbiting telescope has made over a million observations and provided data that astronomers have used to write over 17,000 peer-reviewed scientific publications on topics ranging from planet formation to giant black holes. These documents have been referenced in other publications about 900,000 times, and this total is increasing by an average of 150 per day. Every current astronomy textbook includes observatory material. Today's college students did not know a time in their lives when astronomers were not actively making discoveries using Hubble data.

Popularization of astronomy

Hubble discoveries and memorable photos alsorevived public interest in astronomy. Along with images of the telescope and the astronauts who launched and serviced it during the six space shuttle missions, some scientific memorabilia have become cultural icons. They appear regularly on book covers, music albums, clothing, television shows, movies, and even church windows.

One of the most famous images of the telescopeHubble is part of the Eagle Nebula (M16). Called the Pillars of Creation, it shows three huge pillars of cold gas illuminated by the light of a cluster of young stars with strong stellar winds out of sight above. The tips of the finger-like protrusions at the top of the columns contain dense gaseous globules, within which stars are born. The largest of the three pillars is about four light-years tall.

Photo: NASA / ESA / STScI / Arizona State University

Science of the future

Thanks to the unique design thatmade it possible to maintain it in orbit by astronauts, the Hubble was periodically repaired and updated using advanced instruments. Now, at the peak of its capabilities, Hubble continues to expand the boundaries of our space knowledge. With a history of unprecedented discoveries behind this there are even more mysteries to be solved, and new revelations await us yet - each of which opens our eyes a little more to the wonders that exist in the near and far corners of the Universe, brought to us by a telescope that allows us to see humanity beyond outside the Earth.

Hubble's 30th Anniversary Gift

NASA recently released dozens of recentlyprocessed images of the Hubble telescope, which show 30 dazzling galaxies, sparkling star clusters and ethereal nebulae. Notably, these 30 celestial objects are visible through telescopes in the backyard. Some of them can also be seen with binoculars or even with the naked eye. But, of course, Hubble can see them much better.

This telescope image captures a sphericalStar Cluster Caldwell 78 (or NGC 6541) is about 22,000 light-years from Earth. The cluster is bright enough for backyard astronomers in the Southern Hemisphere to spot easily through binoculars.

Sources: NASA, European Space Agency and J. Piotto (University of Padua); Processing: Gladys Kober

All these celestial objects belong to the collection,known to amateur astronomers as the Caldwell catalog. The catalog, compiled by the British amateur astronomer and scientific communicator Sir Patrick Caldwell-Moore, was published by Sky & Telescope 25 years ago, in December 1995. It was inspired by the Messier catalog compiled by French comet hunter Charles Messier, which includes 110 relatively bright but fuzzy objects in the Northern Hemisphere sky that could be mistaken for comets. Caldwell's catalog identifies 109 galaxies, star clusters, and nebulae that are not included in the Messier catalog but are also bright enough to be seen by amateur astronomers. In addition, Caldwell's objects are split between the skies of the northern and southern hemispheres, providing interesting targets for amateur astronomers around the world.

Today, Hubble has two main cameras forspace photography. Called Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), they work together to provide excellent wide-field imaging over a wide wavelength range. Observing a telescope in visible light allows us to see objects in space at the wavelengths of light that we see with our own eyes, but with a much greater level of detail. Infrared observations broaden our vision by detecting light with less energy than our eyes can see and peering through a veil of dust to display some of the faintest and most distant objects ever detected. Hubble's ultraviolet vision expands the view in the opposite direction, opening a window into the evolving universe and allowing us to see some of the most violent events in space.

While Hubble provides imagesWith minute detail, Caldwell's objects can be observed with humble ground-based telescopes, although some are more complex targets than others. There are many deep space objects in the catalog that are bright enough to be seen with binoculars and some that are visible to the naked eye. Regardless of the observation instrument, Caldwell's objects are rich in history, full of science, and interesting to observe.

This recently released collection of over 50Hubble images includes 30 objects in Caldwell's catalog. These images were acquired by Hubble throughout his career and were used for scientific research or engineering testing, but NASA has not fully processed the images for public release until now.

Use the link to view Caldwell's Hubble objects on the map.

Hitek's editors have selected the most impressive images from the latest published.

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