Drones know everything about Earth. How drones create maps, count animals, and even swim

Make a map of the area without human help, count the saigas, and then dive into the water and not get lost,

even if it is cloudy, different drones can do all this. They are specially programmed and tested for certain tasks that a person cannot cope with.

Drones track the population of rare animals

Today, drones are used to monitorthe population of Far Eastern storks that live in the Bologna Nature Reserve and in the Aistin Nature Reserve: both are located in the Khabarovsk Territory. Drones are also used to count saigas in the Stepnoy reserve in the Astrakhan region, as well as to find out the number of walruses in Chukotka.

The last few years in Russia dronesbegin to be used to track the population of rare species. With the help of drones, it is more convenient to observe animals, since this method is cheaper than satellites, and it also does not create as much noise as compared to helicopters. In the case of the latter method of monitoring, animals can simply scatter from fear and disrupt all plans.

But drones also have a minus - insufficientBattery capacity. To prevent the copter from being discharged on the fly, the staff of the reserves create, for example, special networks of charging complexes or specially improve the components and algorithms for controlling the device.

Create a map using information from the drone

Drones help surveyors conduct groundresearch. For example, previously, in order to create a map of the area, it was necessary to use tacheometers (instruments for measuring distances), GPS devices and terrestrial laser scanners, with the help of which it was possible to obtain information about the space in high resolution.

Now there are copters that can be equipped with high-precision digital cameras, as well as geo-positioning modules and hardware to improve the quality of the result.

Drones are used to create digital3D terrain models, photo schemes and orthophotomaps using aerial photography. The latter is a digitally transformed terrain image created from overlapping original photographs. Photogrammetry is also used to create maps - this is when several images are combined and processed together, which are taken at the same point. The result is a map.

Also, in the wake of active work with drones, we begandifferent projects appear that can autonomously create a map of the area and independently process it. One of them is Maps Made Easy. This is software that connects different images into a common map. The cloud-based system adjusts photos to appear from the same angle. You can also pinpoint GPS coordinates to create a georeferenced map.

What drones report about seasonal and climate changes

In addition to observing individual parameters,drones can give us a big picture of changes in territory. For example, this is how the staff of Brookhaven National Laboratory collected information: they made a three-dimensional visualization of the surface relief and structure of the vegetation cover of the Arctic using drones.

The authors answer that satellites are usually used for the same purposes, but their images have a low resolution, so it will not be possible to create small-scale models in this way.

This problem particularly affected researchersThe Arctic, as this area has mixed vegetation. Therefore, scientists decided to try an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in order to compile information about changes in this area.

The authors of the work managed to create a three-dimensionalvisualization of the Arctic. They emphasized that drones are much easier to operate in remote areas than other airborne systems. Also, these devices can accumulate information on demand in various conditions.

Do it all the same, only underwater

To provide remote monitoring even underwater, scientists decided to create underwater drones. Such devices have completely different difficulties and problems. First, radio signals do not travel far into the water column, and it is also difficult to create an underwater control system and maintain buoyancy.

Therefore, experts began to make their models either completely autonomous control, or a special timer, which, after a certain time, automatically returns the drone to the surface.

For example, in this work, the company has advancedElwave - She studied the sense organs that fish use to move underwater, we are talking about the electric sense of smell - this is a way of perception used by tropical fish living in muddy and heavily contaminated waters, where normal senses are ineffective.

Based on this information, the employees decidedto create special systems for underwater drones that will allow them to work in troubled waters. The system can detect and localize objects in 360 ° and in real time for underwater and industrial robots. It works on both remote-controlled (ROV, ROTV) and autonomous drones.

Drones are a convenient alternative for working onheight or depth. These systems have become so versatile that they are beginning to be used not only on Earth, but also in space. Scientists can now find out all information remotely without endangering anyone. Today, preparations are already underway for the next space missions with UAVs in the lead role.

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