The M-cycle, or the Maysotsenko thermodynamic cycle (Maisotsenko Cycle, M-Cycle - "High-tech") is a way to use
A man who does not expect favors from nature
In the modern world, where ecologicalThe question is, you need to drastically reduce energy and fuel consumption. Valery Maisotsenko made his developments in order to reduce the negative impact on the environment through reducing emissions. Even in the Soviet Union, the professor beat the thresholds of state institutions with attempts to introduce his discovery into production. Everywhere received a negative response. His idea of extracting energy from the air seemed crazy to the scientific community of the time: the statement that heat could be extracted from the cold caused a storm of indignation.
Valery Maisotsenko - practicing scientist, recognized internationalauthority in thermodynamics. Engineer-inventor graduated from Odessa Technological Institute of Refrigeration Industry in 1963. In 1970 he defended his thesis in the field of technology and received the degree of candidate of chemical sciences. In 1988, after defending his thesis at the Moscow Engineering and Construction Institute, he became a doctor of technical sciences, a professor. In the Odessa Academy of Refrigerant in Ukraine led the commercial research on the development of environmentally friendly technologies, is an honorary professor of the Academy. In the USSR he was recognized among the 11 best inventors: he has more than 400 Soviet, Russian and international patents. In desalination technologies, Maisotsenko holds the first Soviet patent with global international protection.
Almost 50 years ago, Valery Maisotsenko provedthat, without violating the laws of thermodynamics, it is possible to significantly extend the limits of cooling, based on the process of evaporation of water. The new approach allowed to cool the liquid or gas to the “dew point” temperature of the external air with minimum energy consumption in one device. Practical developments of the author have found application in the military industry, but official science in the USSR refused to recognize the new principle, comparing it in terms of feasibility with a perpetual motion machine: “This cannot be. This is against the laws of thermodynamics. ”
“Offering to use my inventions for the benefit ofcountries, I wrote a letter to Mikhail Gorbachev. The answer came, which said that my intentions were unreal, the proposals were not subject to discussion. It was recommended not to disturb anyone with unscientific ideas. Framed on the wall, this letter hangs next to other replies from US officials and now inspires me to new inventions and projects, ”says Valery Maisotsenko.
In 1992, Valery left with his familyworking first in Singapore, and then in the United States, where he currently resides and is still actively working in the city of Denver, Colorado. At the turn of the XXI century, together with partners, created two companies - Coolerado Co and Idalex. He invented the heat and mass exchangers Coolerado TMX and HAR, developed manufactured air conditioners that run on water and cool the air to a “dew point” temperature. Now the owner of technology and business is Seeley International, headquartered in Australia. Four years ago, they bought an American company that produced new air conditioners on the M-cycle, Coolerado. And before that, as soon as the Soviet patents expired, they began producing Climate Wizard air conditioners - this is the first generation of technologies, still Soviet ones.
Plants are built in India, Malaysia, the Philippinesfor the production of climatic equipment. In Hong Kong, under the supervision of Maisotsenko, a scientific laboratory was set up to develop systems for desalination based on the M-cycle, conditioning in a humid climate, creating fundamentally new engines and obtaining alternative energy.
Now in the United States created its own, familyMaisotsenko's company M-Cycle Corporation, on which all of its current patents are issued. In all previous companies in the States, Valery Maisotsenko was a founder, partner, employee, but not the owner.
“In 1992, I was forced to leave the country andcontinued his scientific activities in the United States, where he received a positive response to his work. Several companies have begun to produce economical and environmentally friendly air conditioners, ”admits Valery Maisotsenko.
Directed wind Maisotsenko
As Nikola Tesla used to say that developmenthumanity has rapidly moved forward, we must learn to get energy from the environment. Valery Maisotsenko found a way to extract energy from the air through natural environmentally friendly processes of air humidification, evaporation and condensation of water.
Mysotsenko's thermodynamic cycle is based onaction of known physical laws. The space where humid cooled air is formed is an area of reduced pressure. Warm dry air is in the area of high pressure. Air always moves from high pressure to low pressure. As long as the layers of air differ in temperature, humidity, pressure, there is a directed wind. And the stronger the blow, the greater the difference between the original parameters.
It was previously believed that the potential differenceatmospheric air is too small for practical use and is limited by the psychrometric temperature difference recorded at a given point in space by both dry and wet thermometers. Lower readings of a wet thermometer are due to the fact that water evaporates heat during evaporation, causing a cooling effect.
Psychometric temperature difference - the difference between dry and wet air,which is measured by the so-called dry and wet (wet) thermometers. If the thermometer is wrapped in a damp cloth, the temperature will drop. In the bathroom, the shower curtain deviates towards the hot humid air, the pressure of which is less (and the humidity and temperature is higher) than that of the cold and dry.
Maisotsenko could change the reading limitwet thermometer, for the first time in the world reaching the "dew point", significantly increasing the potential difference. As a result, it became possible to efficiently convert one type of energy into another.
Everything about dry and humid airthe difference in temperature and pressure, Valery Maisotsenko created artificially in his apparatus. In nature, the air is cool when it rains; dew falls out when humid air is cooled. In the M-cycle, all this is done by the person himself in the Maisotsenko apparatus, due to the strong evaporation of water and the moistening of the air, is intense and with a greater temperature difference. Energy can now be obtained from this enthalpy difference.
Dew point - is the temperature at which the humidityis 100% and from the air moisture in the form of steam begins to condense in the form of water droplets, that is, dew falls out, as in the morning from fog to grass, when a warm fog collides with cold air.
The inventor constructed a heat and mass exchange, inwhich are interlaced by partitioned dry and artificially moistened channels where immiscible air flows move. In the installation due to the difference in enthalpy a constant artificial wind is formed, capable of performing a certain work. Devices using the M-cycle can be used in the production of cold, heat, energy, fresh water, heat and energy recovery and in fundamentally new engines and turbines. More than 30 M-cycle applications have conceptual technologies, international patents, testing, and prototypes.
Enthalpy - thermal function, heat content orthermodynamic potential of the system, determined by internal energy, pressure and volume. The potential difference in electricity creates a current, and in thermodynamics - the movement of gas or liquid.
Engineering solutions and applications of the M-cycle indifferent countries, including England, Canada, Russia, USA, Japan, are protected by more than 200 relevant patents. Air conditioners using the Maisotsenko cycle are 90% more efficient than traditional devices, which is confirmed by research by NREL - the US National Renewable Energy Sources Laboratory. Energy obtained through the M-cycle, according to the US Department of Energy, is eight to ten times cheaper than from other sources.
Long way to recognition
Since 1992, after emigration to the USA, ValeryMaisotsenko was engaged in the implementation of his developments. It took the inventor ten years to find investors who were not afraid to invest in an idea that, at first glance, contradicted the generally accepted laws of physics and thermodynamics.
Having collected an experimental model from scrap materials,working on a new principle without a compressor and a refrigerant freon, Maisotsenko showed it to businessmen. A simple-looking device: a cardboard box filled with evaporator plates with plastic sheets. The fan pumps air through the inlet, saturated with moisture is ejected from the outlet, and the consumer is supplied with cool dry air that has passed through the M-cycle, with a “dew point” temperature. Now the prototype of the heat and mass transfer apparatus with the third generation of M-cycle technology during the demonstration cools the air from 160 ° F (71 oC) to 55 ° F (13 oC), that is, the cooling exceeded 100 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 - Celsius. It does not use refrigerants, chemicals, moving parts and practically does not consume electricity from the network.
Surprised and inspired by the idea, threeBrother Farmer decided to become investors of M-cycle technologies. They sold their farm and invested $ 15 million into the company for the development and production of climatic equipment Coolerado Co, in which Maisotsenko was the main researcher and developer. They had a university technical education, and they were well versed in thermodynamics. The brothers even became co-authors of patents and publications of Maisotsenko, they also managed the business, attracted investors. Maisotsenko met them at a technology exhibition.
Coolerado air conditioners on the second generation of M-cycle technology have proven their advantages compared to other cooling devices:
- environmental friendliness: only fresh air is used for cooling and cleaning, water is used as the refrigerant, freon is absent;
- economy: energy consumption is eight to ten times lower;
- workability: only a fan is needed, there is no compressor, there is no need to use materials that can withstand high pressure and vacuum.
In 2004, Maisotsenko air conditioners wereawarded the prestigious international award of the journal Research & Development as a breakthrough in the field of low-temperature technology and air conditioning. In 2006, Coolerado Cooler for energy efficiency was awarded the highest award of the annual Parade of Homes contest - The Built Green Colorado Award of Excellence.
US Department of Energy after testingfound that the energy efficiency of air conditioners Coolerado is five times higher, and the energy consumption is up to ten times less than that of similar traditional air coolers. Currently, air conditioners using the Mysotsenko cycle technology are recommended for widespread use by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
The greatest authority on thermodynamicsDr. Myron Tribebus, speaking about the new technology Valery Maisotsenko, noted that when people saw the work of the M-cycle, they drastically change their opinion, turning from critics to defenders. However, the implementation of the M-cycle continues to face opposition in America and around the world. The use of renewable natural energy resources is beneficial for consumers of technological devices, but it intensifies the competition between manufacturers of old models and fossil fuels. Therefore, representatives of traditional automotive, gas and oil companies are not interested in promoting and introducing more energy-efficient and resource-efficient Maisotsenko technologies.
Myron tribibus - American specialist in organization theory. He worked as director of the Center for Advanced Engineering Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1974-1986. He was a well-known supporter of the popularization of Bayesian methods and the work of Edwards Deming, he introduced the term "thermoeconomics".
In countries where there is no own oil - Australia,India, China, Japan, European countries, there is no clear opposition to the introduction of new technologies. Here are purchased patents for the production of devices with M-cycle technology. A bonus for buyers is the unique property of cooling systems of this type: increasing the efficiency of operation with an increase in the ambient temperature “the hotter the better.” Conventional compression air conditioners in hot climates reduce work efficiency.
The principle of operation of the heat pump
The basis of the heat pump - heat and mass transfer,The TMO-device, consisting of two types of cells through which passes dry and damp air. Dry cool air allows you to cool and condense moisture from moist to warm. When condensation of moisture produces all the heat that was spent on evaporation, and it is enough to heat the room or use for work and energy. Condensate formed during operation of the apparatus, flows down and re-enters the wet channels. Atmospheric air circulates in dry areas.
The temperature difference between the atmosphere and condensate isenergy source that allows you to adjust the temperature in the room: in the summer - to cool, in the winter - to heat. In addition to air conditioners, the M-cycle technology is used for desalination in engines, turbines, and heat engines. The benefit of using the installation is obvious - simple, cheap, does not require energy and special materials and does not pollute the environment of the planet.
"Based on the M-cycle, uniqueheat pumps that can be used in residential and industrial buildings. The device performs two functions: heating the air in winter and cooling in summer. Both processes are carried out by the interaction of dry air and water and the release of heat during condensation. One such conditioner consumes ten times less energy than usual, and requires only a third of the heat for normal heating, ”says Valery Maisotsenko.
The heat pump combines the functions of heating andcooling, heat recovery and humidification of the air, after its installation no longer need to pay huge sums for heating and electricity. For his work need a minimum of electricity and heat. One of the main additional advantages of the device is dust filtration, preservation of clean, natural and healthy indoor air. Due to the absence of compressors - minimal noise. The cost of a gigacalorie heat pump is about $ 6, which is ten times less than the current city heating tariffs. This amount is enough to heat a three-room apartment for a month. The cost of acquiring the M-heat pump will pay off in a year, which will save up to 80% in the future on payment for a communal flat.
Valery Maisotsenko wants to return hisinventions home - in Russia and Ukraine. An international group has been created to promote environmentally friendly M-cycle technologies, which includes more than 50 like-minded people. Representative in Russia - co-founder of the Green Building Council (RuGBC), Alexei Polyakov; in Ukraine - the head of the department of the Institute of Technical Thermal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Academician of NASU Artem Khalatov.
Dressing gowns enthusiastically spoke about the inventionscientist: “Valery Maisotsenko made a major contribution to thermodynamics by opening the thermodynamic cycle, creating on this basis technical devices with record figures for efficiency and efficiency. With the use of the M-cycle, a technological “breakthrough” has been made in the creation of air conditioners and a fundamental basis has been created for a “breakthrough” in thermal energy, engine building, energy saving, and chemical technology.
The priority is the development of combined (orhybrid devices using the M-cycle principle as the main process, and traditional ones as additional. For example, at the Kiev Institute of Technical Thermophysics of NASU, a super-efficient heat pump was obtained by connecting the M-cycle with a conventional low-power heat pump. In it, for every kilowatt of electricity consumed, up to 10 kW of heat is generated, which is twice the energy efficiency of installations of this type.
Calculations show that due to high tariffs onheat energy equipment or re-equipment of the room with super efficient heat pumps pays off in a year. Installation of superefficient heat pumps for heating or heating hot water in public buildings and individual houses can significantly reduce the cost of maintaining the premises.
The use of the M-cycle for energy
Now heat is emitted into the atmosphere fromheated exhaust gases (70%) and from engine cases of cars and turbines (30%). In addition, the use of energy in engines and recovery (return, reuse) of domestic and industrial heat is carried out by mechanical devices with low efficiency acting on obsolete and even erroneous principles of the Carnot cycle.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory estimates:
- all the energy consumed in the world at 2/3 turns into waste heat and only a third is used for useful work;
- the main emissions are low-grade heat with low temperature or energy;
- heat recovery - partial return of waste energy in the production process, can significantly reduce losses.
Heat exchanger unit HAR - recuperatorhumidified air based on third-generation M-cycle technology. Using alternative methods of natural cooling, the device allows returning up to 98% of low-grade heat energy to the system. The high performance of the recovery process is documented by HAR testing conducted in 2015 at the Institute of Gas Technologies (Chicago, USA). Experiments have shown that the M-cycle makes it possible, with an efficiency of 92–97%, to use for disposal even a low temperature of exhaust gases (not higher than 50 ° C). Independent researchers have found that using the Maisotsenko cycle under reduced pressure and using solar (or waste heat recovery) heat further increases the efficiency of the process.
The first thing Valery Maisotsenko saw afterforced emigration to the United States, was his invention on the cover of the American Time magazine: photo of a thermoelectric air conditioner, fuel and energy complex in the cockpit of a broken T-72 tank during Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. Now Maisotsenko is dreaming about a photo of his new peaceful inventions on the cover of a Russian technology magazine.
"In addition to air conditioning, now the team Maisotsenkoheat pumps are being developed, prototypes are being made to extract water from air, water desalination was piloted in the USSR, authoritative testing of water cooling and heat recovery was carried out, the greatest prospects were confirmed by independent researchers in the new concept for engines and turbines and in obtaining alternative energy. The implementation horizon in the presence of an investor and an industrial partner (according to this list) is from two to ten years, ”says Alexey Polyakov, a representative of the M-cycle in Russia.