Everything you knew about the tyrannosaurus is not true: how science is changing its Hollywood image

Instead of a growl - cooing, and big lips on the face - this is what the tyrannosaurus most likely looked like.

Was Tyrannosaurus rex one species or three at once?

About 66 million years ago in the western part of the NorthAmerica lived the "king of tyrant lizards": the tyrannosaurus rex. But paleontologists have said that what they call one species was actually three species with physical differences.

The researchers are sure that the fossils of thyrexcan be divided into three types, depending on the physique. The authors identified T. regina (“queen”) and T. imperator (“emperor”) and the third, this is the already existing Tirex. The names are given in Latin.

Paleontologists base their theory on what isdifferent physical features in the remains, which are attributed to the tyrannosaurus rex. They note that these differences are stronger than those that exist between other large predators. The authors divided the species into three according to several characteristics: skeletal strength and the presence/absence of certain teeth.

But not all scientists agree with this position: there is an opinion that fossils may differ due to various factors. For example, physique and proportions change during growth and maturation.

Paleontologists who do not support the ideadivisions of the dinosaur are cited as an example of people also growing differently. Physical differences can also be explained by the way of life, the amount of food and the characteristics of the ecosystem.

About 66 million years ago in the western part of the NorthAmerica lived the "king of tyrant lizards": the tyrannosaurus rex. But paleontologists have said that what they call one species was actually three species with physical differences.

Were there many or few tyrannosaurus rexes?

After 20 years of research, scientists were able to draw a conclusion about the population density of the ancient lizard. Paleontologists have said that several billion tyrannosaurs probably walked the Earth.

Scientists said that at the same time on Earththere were about 20 thousand tyrannosaurs, in total there were 127 thousand generations that lived their lives and died. In total, 2.5 billion tyrannosaurs lived in North America from 2 million years to 3 million years ago.

Did tyrannosaurus rex live alone or move in groups?

Everything is not so clear.Researchers from Canada discovered three tyrannosaurs at once, "buried" in one place: scientists suggested that they moved together. But not everyone agrees with this opinion. Dinosaur behavior is likely to always be a bit more complex than we understand, said Alan Titus, a paleontologist with the US Bureau of Land Management.

As other experts note, a real flockhunting is a rarity for living predators. And social behavior among them ranges from subtle tolerance for another individual to coordinated attacks.

The found fossils are not the first time that tyrannosaurs have been found in the same place. But there is still no answer what they did and why they died together.

Tyrannosaurus growling?

In films, we have heard many times how growlstyrannosaurus rex, but what sounds did it actually make? The researchers decided to find out: they studied the closest relatives of tyrannosaurs - crocodiles and birds. To assess how the tyrannosaurs could “sound”, the authors used a “mixture” of the mating calls of the great bittern (Botaurus stellaris) - low sounds resembling the roar of a bull, and the “voice” of the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis).

According to paleontologists, this sound cannot be transmitted. It is similar to what birds emit, such as cooing. Since the dinosaur had an air sac, not vocal cords.

According to paleontologists, it will not work to convey the sound of tyrannosaurs. It is similar to what birds emit, such as cooing.

Tyrannosaurus rex had teeth. What about lips?

There is no evidence that Tyrannosaurus Rexshowed his teeth even when his mouth was open. As Robert Reisch, a vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Toronto, points out, almost all living things with tooth enamel have lips that cover them. Therefore, the teeth remain in a moist, protected environment. The only exception are crocodiles, as they already live in the water.

Therefore, the Tyrannosaurus rex may have had lips.This sounds unusual, as it is rare to create reconstructions of a Tyrannosaurus rex with hidden teeth. There are several reasons, firstly, large carnivorous dinosaurs have long been drawn with a grin.

On the other hand, a tyrannosaurus rex with a full mouth of teeth looks more ferocious. Thirdly, all dinosaur reconstructions are based on skeletons, of which the teeth are one of the most impressive parts.

"I think the reality is thattyrannosaurs looked less monstrous,” said paleontologist John Conway, “I think in carnivorous dinosaurs most of the time the teeth were not visible, even with an open mouth.”

Reality is very different from fantasy, gamesand cinema, so the popular image of the Tyrannosaurus rex is likely to stick with it for a long time. Nevertheless, scientists are still studying the habits of these carnivorous pangolins to understand how they interacted with each other, how they changed over time and how they looked. Perhaps the Tirex from the movies will turn out to be the exact opposite of what it really was.

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