Found three new hot planets several times larger than Earth

The planets were discovered in TESS imagery taken between October and December 2018. Subsequent

exploration of TOI 451 and its planets includedobservations in 2019 and 2020 with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, which has since been decommissioned. Archived infrared data from NASA's NEOWISE satellite, collected between 2009 and 2011 under its previous name WISE, suggests that the system retains a cold disk of dust and rocky debris. Other observations indicate that TOI 451 probably has two distant stellar satellites circling one another far beyond the planets.

“This system is only 120 million years old andonly 400 light-years away, allowing detailed observation of this young planetary system. And since there are three planets that are 2-4 times the size of Earth, they represent particularly promising targets for testing theories about how planetary atmospheres evolve. ”

Elizabeth Newton, Associate Professor of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire

Star streams form when gravityour Milky Way galaxy is tearing apart star clusters or dwarf galaxies. Individual stars move in the cluster's original orbit, forming an elongated group that gradually diverges.

In 2019, the team used mission dataGaia of the European Space Agency to discover the Pisces-Eridanus stream, named after the constellations containing the largest cluster of stars. The stream extends through 14 constellations about 1,300 light years.

Later in 2019, researchers analyzedTESS data. Younger stars rotate faster than older ones, and they also tend to have noticeable star spots - darker, colder regions like sunspots. As these spots rotate, appear and disappear from the field of view, they can cause small changes in the brightness of the star, which can be measured by TESS.

TESS measurements reveal irrefutableevidence of star spots and rapid rotation among the stars of the stream. Based on this result, this stream was found to be only 120 million years old - similar to the famous Pleiades cluster and eight times smaller than previous estimates. The mass, youthfulness and proximity of the Pisces-Eridanus stream make it an exciting fundamental laboratory for studying the formation and evolution of stars and planets.

Young TOI 451 star, better knownastronomers as CD-38 1467, is about 400 light years away in the constellation Eridanus. It has 95% of the mass of our Sun, but is 12% colder and emits 35% less energy. TOI 451 rotates every 5.1 days, which is five times faster than the Sun.

Even the most distant planet TOI 451 rotates inthree times closer to the star than Mercury has ever approached the Sun, so all these worlds are quite hot and inhospitable for life. Temperature estimates range from 1200 ° C for the innermost planet to 450 ° C for the outermost planet.

TOI 451 b circulates every 1.9 days and approximately at1.9 times the size of Earth, and its estimated mass ranges from 2 to 12 Earth masses. The next planet, TOI 451 c, orbits every 9.2 days, is about three times the size of Earth and has a mass of 3 to 16 times the mass of our planet. The farthest and largest world, TOI 451 d, orbits a star every 16 days, four times the size of Earth and weighing between four and 19 times its mass.

Astronomers expect planets to be this sizewill retain much of their atmosphere despite intense heat from a nearby star. Various theories of atmospheric evolution by the time the planetary system reaches TOI 451 predict a wide range of properties. Observing the light of the stars passing through the atmospheres of these planets provides an opportunity to study this phase of development and may help in limiting existing models.

WISE observations show that the systemis unusually bright in infrared light, invisible to the human eye, at wavelengths of 12 and 24 micrometers. This suggests a disc of debris where rocky bodies, similar to asteroids, collide and turn to dust. Although the researchers cannot determine the size of the disk, they picture it as a diffuse ring of rocks and dust centered about the same distance from the star as Jupiter is from our Sun.

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