Immune cells fight cancer more actively: nanoparticles taught them this

Dr. Jai Prakash and his team of scientists have developed nanoparticles that affect the immune

body cells to protect them from cancer.

Previous studies have shown that tumorcells change the alliance of some specific macrophages, which promotes tumor growth. “Macrophages are cells that act as vacuum cleaners for the immune system. They usually catch intruders and destroy them, but tumor cells can capture them and act against the body,” Prakash explains.

Now scientists have developed nanoparticles thattrain "bad" tumor-supporting macrophages to fight cancer. However, these tiny (100–200 nanometers in diameter) cellular structures must first be found by macrophages before learning can begin. This is the task facing the scientists.

To solve the problem, the researchers changedthe nanoparticles themselves. They consist of a double layer of specific lipids (phospholipids) known as nanoliposomes. They have long tails that often get stuck in the double coat. The scientists replaced some lipids with ones with shorter, charged tails. As a result, they can "turn over" so that bad macrophages recognize them and absorb the entire particle.

After biologists learned to "catch"macrophages, they can be retrained to fight the tumor. To do this, the researchers added a small component to the bacterial cell wall. These molecules are then also taken up by the bad macrophages, causing them to kill the cancer cells. It prevents false recognition, protecting healthy tissue.

Notably, captured macrophages can beonly to retrain, they still prevent metastasis - the ability of cancer cells to spread throughout the body. Trained macrophages did not allow tumor cells to "prepare" the lung tissue to "receive" tumor cells. It is this process that precedes metastasis. In an experiment on mice, when a tumor cell entered the lungs, the tissue was not ready and it was not possible to create a new tumor.

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