How does Runet differ from the rest of the network
Runet - a part of the Internet sites with the main content in Russian
As of September 2020, according to research conducted by W3Techs, 8.7% of the 10 million most popular Internet sites in the world use Russian.
"Runet-related" (that is, Russian-speaking) resources can be located in any domains (or not have a domain), and the corresponding servers can be physically located in any country in the world.
Runet usually includes not only WWW sites, but alsoRussian-language mailing lists, IRC-conferences, FTP-servers, local networks of various sizes, etc. They can be used by Russian-speaking citizens of any country. Probably, resources should not be “attributed or not attributed to the Runet” by any criteria other than language. Technically, the Runet can be recognized by the Russian Cyrillic encoding.
How many people use Runet
Various monitoring agencies regularlyconduct research on the Internet audience in the Russian Federation. Sometimes their results are spoken of as “the number of Runet”, but this is incorrect, since the “Russian-speaking Internet” extends, in addition to the Russian Federation, to other countries of the former USSR and to large foreign Russian-speaking diasporas. It is impossible to establish its exact number.
In 2021, the All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company, reporting on the “27th anniversary of the Russian Internet”, indicated that by this time “the population of the Russian Internet” amounted to “more than three quarters of Russians” - more than 78% of the inhabitants of Russia, or 95 million people.
Why check the autonomous work of the Runet
In 2014, the exercises conducted by the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications showed that “Runet is vulnerable”, and measures were discussed to “minimize risks”, including the possibility of “temporarily disconnecting” the Runet from the outside world.
December 29, 2016 Advisor to the President of the Russian Federation onInternet German Klimenko stated the need to develop protective scenarios in the event of a further deterioration in foreign policy relations between Russia, the United States and the countries of the European Union. He assessed the likelihood of disconnecting Russia from the world Internet as very high.
The head of Roskomnadzor, Alexander Zharov, said on April 9, 2019 that the law on "sovereign Runet" would help in the fight against resources prohibited in Russia.
How Runet can work autonomously
The exact mechanism of the autonomous operation of the Runet so farunknown. However, according to media reports, during testing of autonomous operation, “all operators of the Big Four, as well as Rostelecom, Transtelecom and ER-Telecom Holding, took part in the exercise.
The purpose of the exercises was to determine the possibility of Runet operation in conditions of external distortions, blockages and other threats.
The purpose of the exercise is to determine the possibility of Runet operation in the event of external distortions, blockages and other threats. The official results have not yet been summed up, the exercises were preliminarily recognized as successful
Interlocutor of the publication
The draft law on the sovereign Internet states that Roskomnadzor will set the rules for routing traffic and monitor the implementation of these rules.
The department will be responsible for minimizingvolumes of Russian traffic that passes through foreign communication centers. The responsibility for managing the network infrastructure of the Russian Internet in critical situations will be assigned to a special center. It has already been created in the radio frequency service subordinate to Roskomnadzor.
The funds will mainly go to the installationDPI-system (Deep Packet Inspection), which was developed in RDP.RU. Roskomnadzor selected the equipment from this particular company after testing seven different Russian manufacturers.
DPI-system - hardware and software complex,which analyzes the constituent part of the data packet passing through the network. The constituent parts of the packet are header, destination and sender addresses, body. Here is the last part of the DPI system and will analyze.
If earlier Roskomnadzor looked only at the addressassignment, now the signature analysis will matter. The composition of the package body is compared with a reference - the well-known Telegram package, for example. If the match is close to one, the packet is dropped.
How Runet works at the legislative level
In the fall of 2019, the so-called law was adoptedabout the sovereign runet, which is designed to protect the Russian segment of the Internet from outside threats. According to the law, special equipment must be installed on the networks of all operators in the country, through which Roskomnadzor will be able to manage traffic routing if necessary.
Using the same equipment Roskomnadzorblocks access to content prohibited in Russia, and recently slows down the speed of the websites of individual companies. For example, in March of this year, the department began to slow down the transfer of photo and video content to Twitter, due to the fact that the social network did not remove illegal content. In mid-May, the restrictions were partially lifted.
Major changes and innovations:
- telecom operators are required to establishstate equipment at traffic exchange points for analyzing and filtering traffic (Deep Packet Inspection; DPI) within the country and communication lines crossing the Russian border;
- telecom operators are obliged to enter in the register and use exclusively these exchange points (the procedure is determined by the Government);
- Roskomnadzor implements "centralized management" of the Runet;
- Roskomnadzor implements restriction of access to websites prohibited in Russia;
- drills will be conducted to test procedures;
- a national domain name system is being created.
Autonomous runet problems
If, when the new system is put into operation, the operators have problems, that is, the work of the Internet is disrupted, then the state will have to compensate the operators about 124 billion rubles a year.
President of the Russian Union of Industrialists andentrepreneurs (RSPP) Alexander Shokhin even sent a letter to the Speaker of the State Duma Vyacheslav Volodin, in which he indicated that the implementation of the bill could cause a catastrophic failure of communication networks in Russia.
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