Look at a diamond-based nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

A study by physicists talks about color centers in diamond - point defects in transparent dielectrics

(crystals and glasses) that absorb optical radiation outside the region of intrinsic absorption.

Nitrogen vacancy color centers are formedimpurities of nitrogen, which are next to the missing carbon in the diamond. The sensor uses optical polarization and nuclear readout, as well as a two-quantum radio frequency pulse protocol to track the nuclear spin precession of nitrogen-14.

Recall that rotation sensors or gyroscopescommonly used for navigation, including in cars. In commercial terms, mechanical gyroscopes and microelectromechanical systems are actively used today, new methods also include nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) gyroscopes. These sensors have the potential to outperform commercial devices over the next decade due to their accuracy, reliability, and miniaturization.

Nuclear spin gyroscopes are based on centerscolors of nitrogen vacancy (NV) in diamond and are analogous to vapor-based NMR devices capable of operating in a wider range of environmental conditions. The diamond sensor can function as a multisensor, reporting magnetic field, temperature and strain, while simultaneously serving as a frequency reference. Yarmola and colleagues showed how a diamond NMR gyroscope directly provides information about nuclear spin states without requiring precise knowledge of the frequencies of spin transitions that are influenced by the environment. In the future, thanks to improvements, the team of scientists intends to create such a device that can be practically used for navigation.

In a pilot setup, the team installeddiamond sensor, green diode laser, photodetector and all optical components on a rotating platform regulated by a specialized system. The diamond supported a 400 µm thick single crystal plate with a nitrogen vacancy concentration of 4 ppm.

Scientists have created a displaced magnetic field withusing two temperature-compensated samarium-cobalt ring magnets and an aspherical condenser lens to illuminate a 50 μm diamond with 80 mW green laser light to collect fluorescence from nitrogen vacancies. The scientists spectrally filtered the fluorescence using a bandpass filter and focused it on one of the channels of a balanced photodetector. Then, radio frequency pulses were applied to control the nuclear spin using a copper wire with a diameter of 160 μm, placed on the surface of the diamond near the optical focus. To prevent ambient magnetic field noise, the team placed the rig, including diamond and magnets, inside low-carbon steel magnetic shields.

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