Newspeak, Inter-Slavic and Esperanto: How Science Artificially Creates Languages

Artificial languages

Constructed languages ​​are specialized languages ​​in which vocabulary, phonetics and

grammars have been specifically designed to fulfill specific purposes. Exactly purposefulness distinguishes artificial languages ​​from natural ones. These languages ​​are sometimes referred to as fake languages. There are already more than a thousand such languages, and new ones are constantly being created.

Reasons for creating an artificial languageare: facilitating human communication (international auxiliary languages, codes), giving additional realism to fiction, linguistic experiments, ensuring communication in the fictional world, language games and having fun.

Classification of artificial languages

There are the following types of artificial languages:

  • Programming languages ​​and computer languages ​​- languages ​​for automatic processing of information using a computer.
  • Information languages ​​are languages ​​used in various information processing systems.
  • Formalized languages ​​of science are languages ​​intended for symbolic recording of scientific facts and theories of mathematics, logic, chemistry and other sciences.
  • International auxiliary languages ​​(planned) - languages ​​created from elements of natural languages ​​and offered as an auxiliary means of interethnic communication.
  • Languages ​​of non-existent peoples created infictional or entertainment purposes, such as: Elvish language invented by J. Tolkien, Klingon language invented by Mark Okrand for science fiction series Star Trek, the Na'vi language created for the movie "Avatar".
  • There are also languages ​​that have been specifically designed to communicate with extraterrestrial intelligence. For example - linkos.

According to the purpose of creation, artificial languages ​​can be divided into the following groups:

  • Philosophical and logical languages - languages ​​that have a clear logical structure of word formation and syntax: Lojban, Tokipona, Ilaksh.
  • Supporting languages - designed for practical communication: Esperanto, Interlingua, Inter-Slavic language, Lingua franca nova, Venusian language
  • Artistic or aesthetic languages - created for creative and aesthetic pleasure: Quenya and other fictional languages.
  • Languages ​​for setting up an experiment, for example, to test the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (that the language spoken by a person limits consciousness, drives it into a certain framework).

By their structure, artificial language projects can be divided into the following groups:

  • A priori languages - based on logical or empirical classifications of concepts: loglan, Lojban, ro, solresol, ifkuil, ilaksh.
  • A posteriori languages - languages ​​built mainly on the basis of international vocabulary: interlingua, occidental
  • Mixed languages - words and word formation are partly borrowed from non-artificial languages, partly created on the basis of artificially invented words and word-building elements: volapuk, ido, esperanto, neo.

According to the degree of practical use, artificial languages ​​are divided into the following projects:

  • Widely used languages:ido, interlingua, esperanto, inter-slavic. Such languages, like national languages, are called "socialized"; among artificial languages ​​they are united under the term planned languages.
  • Artificial language projects that have a number of supporters, for example, Loglan (and its descendant Lojban), Slovio and others.
  • Languages ​​that have a single native speaker - the author of the language (for this reason, it is more correct to call them "linguistic projects" rather than languages).

Joint artificial languages

Talos language, cultural basis fora virtual state known as Talossa was created in 1979. However, as interest in the Talos language grew, the development of guidelines and regulations for the language since 1983 has been undertaken by the Committee on the Use of the Talos Language, as well as other independent enthusiastic organizations.

The Villnian language is based on Latin, Greek andScandinavian languages. Its syntax and grammar are reminiscent of Chinese. The basic elements of this artificial language were created by one author, and its vocabulary was expanded by members of the Internet community.

Most artificial languages ​​are created by onea person like Talos. But there are languages ​​that are created by a group of people, such as Interlingua, developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association, and Lojban, created by the Logical Language Group.

Joint development of artificial languages ​​of steelhave become prevalent in recent years as artificial language designers began to use Internet-based tools to coordinate design developments. NGL / Tokcir was one of the first internet collaborative designed languages ​​whose developers used a mailing list to discuss and vote on grammatical and lexical design issues.

Later in The Demos IAL Projectthe International Auxiliary Language was developed using similar collaborative methods. The languages ​​Voksigid and Novial 98 were developed using mailing lists, but none of them have been published in final form.

New artificial languages

  • Volapyuk

It is an international artificial socializedlanguage created in 1879 by the German Catholic priest Johann Martin Schleier. A version of the Volapuk is now in use, reformed by Ari de Jong in 1929 and presented to the general public in 1931.

Most of the roots in Volapuk are taken fromEnglish and French, but rebuilt in accordance with restrictions on the composition of phonemes and the structure of the root in Volapuk, as well as in order to avoid homonymy (coincidence with existing roots).

In addition, Schleier sought to make a lexiconVolapyuk independent, devoid of imprints of languages-sources of words. As a result, many roots began to radically, sometimes beyond recognition, differ from their etymons. For example, English world ("World") and speak ("To speak") have become vol and pükthat gave the name to the new language.

  • Mezhslavyansky

Auxiliary common Slavic language basedon the linguistic material of Old Slavic and living Slavic languages, intended for communication between their speakers, and, therefore, with its help, one can communicate without using separate Slavic national languages.

Inter-Slavic language can be classified asnaturalistic artificial language. In fact, this is a modern functional continuation of the Old Slavic language, focused on understanding without prior learning by the native speaker of any of the languages ​​of the Slavic group.

The grammar and vocabulary is based on constructions common to Slavic languages, has a simplified grammar with a minimum of exceptions, which allows a Slavic speaker (Slavophon) to easily master this language.

Created primarily to helptravelers and people to communicate personally and via the Internet without translating the text into several languages, which allows a person to speak and write clearly for speakers of almost any of the living Slavic languages, as well as to better understand texts in other Slavic languages.

  • Esperanto

It is the most common planning language.created by the Warsaw linguist and optometrist Lazar (Ludwik) Markovich Zamenhof in 1887, after ten years of work. By 1878, his project "Lingwe uniwersala" was almost completed. On December 17, Zamenhof with his gymnasium friends celebrated the creation of the language.

Esperanto is meant to be universalinternational language, the second (after the native) for every educated person. The use of a neutral (non-ethnic) and easy-to-learn language could bring interlanguage contacts to a qualitatively new level. In addition, Esperanto has great pedagogical (propaedeutic) value, that is, it greatly facilitates the subsequent study of other languages.

On one of the most popular sites for learning Esperanto - - as of May 17, 2018, there are 272,622 registered participants.

  • Blissymbols

Blissymbolica or Bliss - internationala semantic language system consisting of several hundred basic graphic symbols and capable of replacing any natural and artificial language in writing. Each bliss symbol represents a concept; when combined together, bliss symbols can create new symbols that represent new concepts.

Blissymbolica differs from most major world writing systems in that the symbols do not correspond at all to any sounds used in human speech.

Since the 1960s took place"Tourism boom", many researchers were looking for new standard symbols that could be used as signs on roads, train stations, airports, etc. Since that time for Blissymbols her real name was fixed in order to exclude someone's illegal plagiarism.

  • Lingua de planet

It is an artificial language that belongs to the categoryplanned and a posteriori. The creation process was started in 2006 in St. Petersburg by a group of enthusiasts led by Dmitry Ivanov, and the basic version was published in 2010. The language was based on the most influential languages ​​of the planet at the beginning of the 21st century: English, Arabic, Chinese, German, Russian, French, Hindi, etc.

The idea of ​​the authors was to create a harmonious wholebased on the most common and influential national languages ​​of the planet. As a consequence of the main idea, both the dictionary and the grammar of the language contain a significant number of non-European word roots. According to these characteristics, Ledepla belongs to the Mirlang class. In general, the language was created so that a significant part of the world's population could find in it elements of similarity to their native language.

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