Physicists have found a way to fix autonomous quantum errors

Quantum computing is the gateway to new computational power and it can also contribute to

the discovery of materials, artificial intelligence,biochemical engineering and many other disciplines necessary for the future military; however, because qubits, the fundamental building blocks of quantum computers, are inherently fragile, an efficient implementation of quantum error correction has been a long-standing obstacle to quantum computing. In addition, the military plans to "fight and win" in the so-called multi-domain operations just using quantum computing, according to the US Army Research Laboratory.

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts inAmherst identified a way to protect quantum information from a common source of error in superconducting systems, one of the leading platforms for implementing large-scale quantum computers. In a study published in Nature magazine, scientists have implemented a new way to spontaneously correct quantum errors.

Credit: Army Research Laboratory.

Today's computers are built with transistors,representing the classical bits, either 1 or 0. In turn, quantum computing is a new paradigm for computing using quantum bits or qubits, where quantum superposition and entanglement can be used to exponentially increase computational power.

Existing demonstrations of quantum correctionerrors are active. This means that they need to be checked periodically for errors and corrected immediately. In turn, this requires hardware resources and thus inhibits the scaling of quantum computers.

On the contrary, in the experiment of the researcherspassive quantum error correction is achieved by correcting the friction, or dissipation, experienced by the qubit. Since friction is generally considered an important obstacle to quantum coherence, this result may seem surprising. The trick is that the dissipation has to be specially designed in a quantum way.

This general strategy has been known in theory for about two decades, but a practical way to obtain such dissipation and use it for quantum error correction has been challenging.

“Demonstrating such unconventional approaches, weHopefully it will spur smarter ideas to overcome some of the toughest challenges in quantum science, ”explains Grace Metcalfe, Female Program Manager for Quantum Informatics at AFOSR.

The researchers said it is implied that there may be more ways to protect qubits from errors and to do so at a lower cost.

“Although our experiment is still quiteWith a rudimentary demonstration, we finally realized this conflicting theoretical possibility of dissipative QECs, ”said Dr. Chen Wang, a physicist at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. "This experiment raises the prospect of creating a useful fault-tolerant quantum computer in the medium to long term."

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Квантовая суперпозиция — суперпозиция состояний, which cannot be realized simultaneously from the classical point of view; it is a superposition of alternative states. The principle of existence of superpositions of states is usually called in the context of quantum mechanics simply the principle of superposition.

Quantum dissipation studies quantum analogsthe process of irreversible energy loss observed at the classical level. The main task of this section is to derive the classical laws of dissipation using quantum mechanics.

QEC (Quantum error correction) Quantum error correction - used in quantum computing to protect quantum information from errors due to decoherence and other quantum noise.

Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) describe how the armyThe United States in a combined force [army, navy, air force and marines] can face and defeat an almost equal adversary in all areas [air, land, sea, space and cyberspace] in both technology competition and armed conflict.