**Ruslan Yunusov** - Director General of the Russian Quantum Center. Graduated with honors physical

**RCC** - a research organization that conductsfundamental and applied research in the field of quantum physics, is engaged in the creation and commercialization of new technologies and devices based on the use of quantum effects. Specialists develop supersensitive sensors, optical microresonators, elements of quantum computers (qubits), as well as quantum cryptography systems and others. In 2016, the Center was the first in Russia to launch an absolutely secure connection in commercial lines, in May 2017 - the country's first multi-node quantum network and the world's first quantum blockchain.

**Quantum processor, Russian developments and stack**

**- What does the roadmap for the development of quantum technologies include?**

- The roadmap includes three mainsubtechnologies: quantum computing, that is, quantum computer, quantum communications and quantum sensors. If we speak in terms of maturity, quantum communications today are the most competitive in our country compared to solutions in the world. Over the past three years, we have managed to significantly reduce the gap between the leaders, and we are now catching up with them. The task by 2024 is to make a world-class solution and enter global markets, sell a device there. Our target, which we are talking about, is 8% of the global market.

**- RCC develops all three areas that you mentioned?**

- Partially. On quantum communications we have our own team, but in Russia there are two more research groups. In quantum computing, we are developing some parts of this large field, but not all. If we talk about quantum computing, many people do not quite understand the formulation of the problem. To solve a problem on a quantum computer, it is not enough to have just a quantum processor. You need to be able to manage it, and then you need to have a conditionally operating system, algorithms - to solve the entire stack.

**- What are the tasks now, if we talk about a computer - to increase the qubit life time? If we consider the example of an IBM computer.**

- See, what you say now isfirst level question, hardware. How to build the processor itself so that it works normally. And there are several different technological bases on which to build it — superconductivity or cold atoms and cold ions. It is not clear which of them will win in five years.

**- Will it all come to one solution, will not all technologies be on the market at the same time?**

- Most likely, sooner or later it will come to somethingone Why? For example, classic processors - all built on the same technology. Although theoretically it could be different. And there are several reasons for this - investment, efficiency, and so on. Just now it is not clear which technology will win. There are technological problems with superconducting qubits, for example, the lifetime, but this is not the only question. Accuracy of writing and reading is also very important. And then - how to build a large enough scalable system. This is the main question. There are many parameters that need to be addressed. Imagine that you have built a good processor. Your computer will not work on a single processor. We also need error correction algorithms, correction codes, problem solving algorithms, the operating system itself, a programming language, an interface for the industry, so that you can download the task and get a solution.

**- It can be built simultaneously with the processor?**

- Of course, this is done. For example, people write programming languages for an abstract quantum computer. Or quantum algorithms for factoring numbers, something else - they are generally made for an abstract quantum computer, the so-called universal. When people write software, high-level programs, they do not think on which processor it will be done, they write at the logic level. Similarly, algorithms are developed at the logic level.

**Quantum computers will come even in agriculture**

**- Can you tell us about quantum sensors?**

- One example of a quantum sensor -superconducting quantum computer As a qubit, it uses such a chain in the superconducting state. And the problem of time of life is that any external disturbances destroy this state. If the same construction is used as a detector of external fields that destroy it, then magnetic fields can be measured very accurately. The most accurate measurements of magnetic fields are carried out just with the help of the same qubit technology, only in a different incarnation. Separate atoms can be used — for example, nitrogen atoms placed in a diamond crystal. They are so isolated that they can measure the same magnetic fields, or temperature, or gravity. In laboratories, this is already happening, but it is necessary to move on to industrial products. These will be very small, energy efficient and sensitive sensors.

**- At the end of the briefing, you said that the quantumtechnology will come in all branches. And why are they in all industries? You have drawn an analogy with ordinary computers, but in many industries, ordinary computers solve all problems.**

**-** Yes, but when ordinary computers appeared, they were not needed in all industries. 50 years ago, not everyone needed computers, and people said: yes, I don't need it. And today there is no such industry ...

**- Do you think the same thing will happen with the quantum one?**

- When you still have power, headnew challenges come. Here, too, for example, artificial intelligence - where necessary, everywhere or not? Yes, almost everywhere. Just as it becomes more accessible, simple, integrable and solves a wider class of problems, it will be used everywhere. A quantum computer is like an underlying technology that provides a solution to various problems. As this technology develops, it will come to agriculture, the industrial sector, and the banking sector.

**- You said about the year 2024. But if we talk about the affordability of technologies for business, even large ones, then what terms can we talk about when such technologies can be afforded by companies?**

- There is one problem - it is not clear how much is neededtime to solve technological problems of scaling a quantum computer. Maybe three years, maybe more. Sometimes, it happens, you reach the implementation stage, and you see a technical problem, the solution of which will take several years. It happens that you move normally. While the movement seems to be going, but it is not obvious. Therefore, on the horizon of five years, it is expected that cost-effective solutions will be offered.

About access - not everyone will need to buyquantum computer to try quantum computing capabilities. Already, in order to test the technology, IBM gives cloud access to its computer. And here we propose, within the framework of the roadmap, to move towards creating a cloud platform. So that everyone can test the breakthrough technology without buying a computer

**- So it will be a computer built, for example, at the RCC, which other organizations can access?**

- Not necessarily in the RCC, it can be anywherebuilt by And the main idea is that this platform will have access to different computers. Because now there are universal quantum computers, simulators, there are quantum-inspired classical algorithms, there are just classic computers. And depending on the nature and complexity of the task, it is sent for errors to the corresponding system. Just as now, we have a processor, a co-processor inside it, and there is also a graphics processor. And on what the task is, the system determines where to send it to solve. So it is here: depending on the task, the platform should understand where it is better to try to solve it. And to work not with one computer, but with several, and also with simulators.

**“When a quantum computer appears, it can crack all the encryption systems.” Are we ready for this moment?**

- Quantum communications protect against this. In Russia, appropriate solutions have been developed, in particular, by our subsidiary Qrate, the so-called quantum key distribution installations. If tomorrow this problem arises, it will not be solved in one day, because it takes time for infrastructure. Plus, there are still new types of algorithms - the so-called post-quantum algorithms - they have not been implemented yet either. We are making efforts to meet the appearance of quantum computers fully armed.

**Quantum communications** - communication networks protecting transmitteddata using the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics. They are a practical implementation of the so-called quantum cryptography. They form an important element of quantum computing and cryptography systems. Allow information to be transported between physically separated quantum systems. In distributed computing, network nodes in a network can process information by performing the function of quantum gates. Secure data transfer can be implemented using key distribution algorithms.

**Post Quantum Cryptography** - part of cryptography that remains relevantwith the advent of quantum computers and attacks. Since quantum computers are far superior to classic computer architectures in computing traditional cryptographic algorithms, modern cryptographic systems are potentially vulnerable to attack. Most traditional cryptosystems rely on the problem of factorization of integers or discrete logarithm problems, which will be easily solved on sufficiently large quantum computers using the Shor algorithm.

**- You say that quantum technologies will begin to be introduced into the business within five years?**

- Computers will appear on the horizon of five years,who will begin to solve the first cost-effective problems. This is the task of factorization - one of the most difficult, it will not be solved at the first stage. For it, for example, more power is needed than for modeling some first materials. The requirements for optimization problems, perhaps less than for factorization. That is, there are now several dozen quantum algorithms that solve different problems. Shor's algorithm, which does factorization that will hack, is quite demanding.