Scientists have discovered why the nuclei are in the form of drops

Gene expression is the process by which hereditary information from a gene is converted into

functional product - RNA or protein.

Scientists used a modeling methodmolecular dynamics. With it, they modeled how a molecular system changes over time. At the beginning of the simulation, the proteins and RNA that make up the small nuclei are randomly distributed throughout the nucleus. Simulation tracked how they gradually form small droplets.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is one of threebasic macromolecules (the other two - DNA and proteins), which are found in the cells of all living organisms and play an important role in the coding, reading, regulation and expression of genes.

In the modeling, the researchers also includedchromatin: a substance that makes up chromosomes and includes proteins. Using data from previous experiments that analyzed the structure of chromosomes, the team calculated the interaction energy of individual chromosomes, which allowed them to represent the 3D structure of the genome.

Using this model, the researchers observed howdroplets of small nuclei are formed. They found that if they had modeled the components of the small nuclei inside the nucleus on their own, without chromatin, they would fuse into one large blob. Once chromatin was introduced into the model, the researchers found that the small nuclei formed many droplets.

Scientists have explained why this is happening. Small nuclei bind to specific regions of chromatin, chromatin acts as a brake that prevents small bodies from fusing with each other.

“The connection we see between chromatin andnuclear bodies is not specific to small nuclei. This also applies to other nuclear organs, scientists say. "This concentration of the nuclear body fundamentally changes the dynamics of genome organization and is likely to transform the genome from liquid to gel."

The gel state will facilitate interactionthe different regions of chromatin with each other are much more numerous than in a liquid structure. Maintaining stable interactions between distant regions of the genome is important because genes are often controlled by regions of chromatin that are physically distant from them.

The cell stores genetic material in the nucleus in the form of chromosomes. The nucleus is home to small bodies, clusters of proteins and RNA that help build ribosomes.

The ribosome is the most important non-membrane organelle of all living cells, which serves for the biosynthesis of protein from amino acids according to a given template based on genetic information provided by messenger RNA.

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