Scientists have recreated all three types of stem cells that make up a human embryo.

More than ten years ago, the Japanese researcher Shinya Yamanaka from Kyoto University performed one of the main

discoveries in the field of creating artificialhuman embryo. Together with the team, the researcher found a way to take ordinary mouse skin cells and turn them into embryo-like stem cells — induced by pluripotent stem cells (iPScs).

However, the discovery of Japanese scientists did not allow the creation of a full-fledged artificial human embryo - for this it was necessary to obtain two more types of stem cells.

Now scientists have managed to do this: they received trophoblast stem cells (SCT) and endodermal extraembryonic stem cells (ESKE). These are stem cells that generate the placenta and other important tissues surrounding the embryo, including the umbilical cord and yolk sac.

To create an artificial human embryo, weneed to organize cells into a three-dimensional structure. Then, if everything is done correctly, if we find the exact relationship between cell types and a suitable medium, then we could create a germ.

Yosef Bouganim, lead author of the study

Earlier, Chinese scientists from the University of ZoologyKunming, as part of a study on the development of the human brain, introduced the MC HP 1 gene, or microcephalin, which is responsible for regulating fetal brain growth, into the macaque genome. This genetic change has made monkeys smarter, but the international scientific community criticized the experiment.