Scientists have recreated all three types of stem cells that make up a human embryo.

More than ten years ago, Japanese researcher Shinya Yamanaka from Kyoto University made one of the main

discoveries in the field of creating artificialhuman embryo. Together with his team, the researcher found a way to take normal mouse skin cells and turn them into embryonic-like stem cells called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

However, the discovery of Japanese scientists did not make it possible to create a full-fledged artificial human embryo - for this it was necessary to obtain two more types of stem cells.

Now scientists have managed to do this: they received trophoblast stem cells (SCT) and endodermal extraembryonic stem cells (ESKE). These are stem cells that generate the placenta and other important tissues surrounding the embryo, including the umbilical cord and yolk sac.

To create an artificial human embryo, weyou need to organize the cells into a three-dimensional structure. Then, if done correctly, if we find the exact relationship between cell types and the right environment, we could create an embryo.

Yosef Buganim, lead author of the study

Previously, Chinese scientists from the University of ZoologyKunming, as part of a study of human brain development, introduced the MC HP 1 gene, or microcephalin, which is responsible for regulating fetal brain growth, into the macaque genome. This genetic change made the monkeys smarter, but the international scientific community criticized the experiment.