Secrets of white holes: how are antipodes of black holes arranged and where to look for them?

What are white holes?

White hole - a hypothetical physical object in the Universe, in the area of ​​which there is nothing

cannot enter.A white hole is the temporal opposite of a black hole and is predicted by the same equations of general relativity. Most physicists are convinced that in principle there cannot be white holes in nature.

It is assumed that white holes can be formed when the matter of a black hole, located in the opposite direction of the thermodynamic arrow of time, leaves the event horizon.

Moreover, the complete space-time mapcontains both black and white holes, and a separate formation of only a “pure” black or only “pure” white hole on a complete map of space-time cannot exist in principle.

In the 1960s, Soviet theoretical physicist IgorNovikov (ASC FIAN), proceeding from the theory of relativity, came to the conclusion that there should be objects in space that are opposite in properties to black holes. He called them white holes.

The complete Schwarzschild solution contains both black and white holes. It is considered that Schwarzschild white holes does not exist at the moment.The complete Kerr solution contains both black and white holes. A Kerr white hole (the result of the Kerr solution for black holes) is formed in one universe when a black hole forms in another.

The history of the emergence of the theory of white holes

For the first time, astrophysicists fromIsrael - Shlomo Heller and Alan Retter said that the source of the incomprehensible burst of gamma radiation, which was assigned the number GRB060614, was a white hole.

The outbreak was registered in 2006.Scientists claim that this type of gamma radiation occurs during the birth of black holes and is divided into two types. Long flares last about two seconds and occur as a result of the transformation of massive stars into black holes, and short, less than a second, they occur after the collision of two neutron stars.

Anomalous burst GRB 060614 was unusual because the flare lasted over 100 seconds, but no black hole was formed there.

Scientists argue that if we assume aboutthe existence of white holes, then one can imagine that there was an ejection of matter from the black hole, which was beyond the event horizon. A phenomenon has occurred, the opposite of the process taking place inside a black hole, attracting everything to itself as a result of incredibly powerful gravitational forces.

What does a white hole look like?

Imagine a sphere of such a monstrous mass,that from its surface can be torn off only at the speed of light. This is a black hole. Its radius is called gravitational. If all of the Sun's matter is compacted into a sphere with a radius of three kilometers, it will turn into a black hole.

The gravitational radius is also called the horizon.events. If behind it, inside the sphere, an object falls, for example, a spaceship or a piece of stellar matter, then it will not return back. Huge gravitational forces will pull it into a black hole and there will tear it apart into elementary particles.

Atoms from a black hole fall into a white hole and instantly fly out of it, but in another universe. And they fly out of the future into the past. A white hole is a black hole reversed in time.

White holes are unstable. As matter forms in them, gravitational forces grow and at some point collapse the object, turning it into a black hole.

Perhaps all the white holes that formed immediately after the Big Bang are now literally dead, so we can't see them.

Where to look for white holes?

Quasars tried on the role of white holes - the brightestspace objects in space and active galactic nuclei. Scientists Alon Retter and Shlomo Heller suggested that white holes are completely spontaneously born in space and, throwing out all the matter at once, die.

They cannot be regarded as cosmic bodies; rather, they are “windows” in the Universe, living for only a few minutes. It is impossible to predict the time and place of birth of white holes.

Most of all for the role of such spontaneous windows,According to Retter and Heller, gamma-ray bursts are suitable, which are the strongest explosions with the radiation of high-energy particles, which lasts two seconds or more. Their traces are observed in different regions of the Universe for many billions of light years from us. If a gamma-ray burst happened nearby, life on Earth would be quickly destroyed.

What events can be associated with white holes?

Israeli astronomers Alon Retter and Shlomo Hellerthe anomalous GRB 060614 gamma-ray burst that occurred in 2006 is speculated to be a white hole. Alon Retter believes that white holes, having arisen, immediately disintegrate, a process reminiscent of the Big Bang. Retter and his colleagues called it "Small Bang".

GRB 060614 - GRB detected June 142006 by the Swift Orbital Observatory. The unusual properties of this burst called into question the scientific consensus that had developed by that time regarding the predecessors of gamma-ray bursts and black holes.

All previously detected gamma-ray bursts were divided intotwo categories: long (over two seconds) and short. The alleged source of the long bursts is massive stars very distant from Earth at the time of collapse into a black hole. This mechanism for the formation of a gamma-ray burst suggests that it should be followed by a supernova explosion.

Possible sources of short burstscalled the merger of two neutron stars to form a black hole, the merger of a neutron star and a black hole, or the merger of two black holes. In addition to the burst duration, the categories also differ in the average energy (frequency) of gamma quanta; in short bursts it is much higher.

GRB 060614 did not fit into the existing pictureobservations. The duration of the gamma-ray burst was 102 seconds, the X-ray afterglow lasted more than a week. It was recorded in a galaxy in the constellation of the Indian, 1.6 billion light-years from Earth. The temporal length of GRB 060614 indicated that it belongs to the category of long bursts.

Optical light curve from GRB 060614

The dominant theory of long burstspredicted the detection of a massive supernova in optical observations. However, none of the observatories that observed this region of the sky found either a supernova or spectral signatures of nickel-56 atoms, which should form when the star collapses.

The parent galaxy of GRB 060614 is small (about one hundredth of the weight of the Milky Way) and contains very few stars that could become a supernova or a source of a long burst.

At the same time GRB 060614 according to dataobservations can be divided into two parts: an initial pulse with a duration of less than 5 seconds from high-energy gamma quanta and a subsequent stream of almost 100 seconds in length from gamma quanta with lower energy. The observations of short bursts with a similar radiation pattern already available at that time could give reason to classify GRB 060614 to the same class, but it was about 8 times more powerful.

Scientists' position on white holes

No one has yet managed to spot the white hole untilthat it is just a theory that seems bright and interesting enough. Proponents of this theory believe that they are difficult to find, because they are located in areas where there is no cosmic substance, as it can destroy a white hole. One atom can make such an object unstable and it will explode.

There are currently unknown physical objects thatcan be reliably considered white holes, the theoretical mechanisms of their formation, apart from the relic one, immediately after the Big Bang, are also unknown, and there are no prerequisites for the methods of their search (unlike black holes, which should be located, for example, in the centers of large spiral galaxies).

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