Planetary scientists have used the Doppler effect and ultra-precise measurements of light to understand why some
Analyzing measurements of light as it passesplanet between the star and the Earth, the researchers found that Janssen revolves around Copernicus along the star's equator. At the same time, all the other planets revolving around the star Copernicus (55 Cancer) go far beyond the plane of the equator.
Researchers believe that interactions betweenvarious celestial bodies have moved Janssen to his current position. As Copernicus rotates, centrifugal force causes the middle part to bulge outward slightly and the top and bottom to flatten. This asymmetry affected the gravity that Janssen felt, causing the planet to move toward the star's thicker equator.
To understand how the planet moves, astronomersused the Doppler effect - a change in frequency and wavelength due to the movement of an object relative to the observer. During rotation, half of the star rotates towards the Earth, while the other half moves away. This means that half of the star is slightly bluer and the other half is slightly redder. The scientists tracked the planet's orbit, measuring when it blocks light from the red, blue, and unaltered midsections.
The movement of the planet across the disk of the star. Image: L. Zhao et al., Nature Astronomy
Analysis of how planets form andmove over time is critical to finding an Earth-like environment on which life can exist, the authors say. They will continue to analyze other planetary systems using this method.
Janssen is an exoplanet located at a distanceonly 40 light years from Earth. It revolves around the star Copernicus in 18 hours. Due to its extremely close location, the surface of this rocky planet is hot lava flows, heated to temperatures in excess of 2,000 ° C. In addition to Janssen, five more exoplanets have been discovered around the star.
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