The most distant and ancient galaxy in the Universe has been found

Galaxy GN-z11 is so far away that it defines the very border of the observable universe. The team of scientists hopes

that new research will shed light on a period of cosmological history when the universe was only a few hundred million years old.

Professor Nobunari Kasikawa of the University of Tokyo Astronomy Department has long searched for the most distant galaxy available for observation to find out how and when it appeared.

“Based on previous studies, the galaxyGN-z11 seems to be the farthest detectable galaxy from us. It is located at a distance of 13.4 billion light years or 134 nonillion kilometers (that's 134 with 30 zeros), ”explains Kashikawa. “But measuring and checking that distance is not an easy task.”

Kashikawa and his team measured the redshiftGN-z11. Recall that the cosmological (metagalactic) redshift is a decrease in radiation frequencies observed for all distant sources (galaxies, quasars), explained as the dynamic distance of these sources from each other and, in particular, from the Milky Way.

To study the GN-z11, the scientists used the ground-based spectrograph, an emission line measuring instrument called MOSFIRE, which is mounted on the Keck I telescope in Hawaii.

(Above) The arrow points to the farthestgalaxy in the universe. (Bottom) Infrared carbon emission lines. When it left the galaxy, the signal was ultraviolet light in the 0.2 micrometer region, but it was red-shifted and stretched 10 times, down to about 2.28 micrometer. Credit: Kashikawa et al.

Let us recall that the emission spectrum, the emission spectrum,emission spectrum is the relative intensity of the electromagnetic radiation of the object of study on a frequency scale. It is usually studied in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet ranges from highly heated substances.

MOSFIRE has detailed emission linesGN-z11, which allowed the team to make a much more accurate estimate of the distance to the galaxy. As Kashikawa notes, when dealing with distances on these scales, it is unwise to use our familiar units of kilometers or even multiples of them. Instead, astronomers use a different value - the redshift number, denoted z.

Kashikawa and his team have improved the accuracy of the valuez galaxies 100 times. If subsequent observations confirm this, astronomers can confidently say that GN-z11 is the farthest galaxy ever discovered in the universe.

Read also

Named a plant that is not afraid of climate change. It feeds a billion people

A wearable sensor signals that a person has COVID-19

Earth is in the process of the sixth extinction. How will this affect humanity