Anton Rakov - Associate Professor, Department of Innovative Design, Samara State Technical
The colonization of the moon is still a pure theory
- How did the moon come into your life?
- And this, by the way, is an interesting question. I honestly do not know what I need there. But for some reason this environment intrigues me. Perhaps he re-read Russian cosmists - Tsiolkovsky, Chizhevsky.
- Over the past year, the Moon has become popular again.the direction of development of the space industry - both for Russia, and for the USA, and for other countries. When you started it all, the Moon was, in general, less popular. Nobody talked about building a base on the moon as the near future.
- I'll tell you more. This topic was on a par with fortune-tellers and all such other things. Now again, a new wave has arrived.
Photo: Maxim Bubnov / "Hightech"
- It was difficult to start research, when it is not clear why they are and for whom? Now, perhaps, there are some prospects, but then it was a pure theory?
- Yes of course. Even now, it is actually a theory, because neither we nor the Americans have any readiness for the construction to start right in the near future. That is, it's just a new wave - everyone is trying to portray something like that. It all began with the study of extreme environments and how a person adapts to these environments, which is common between different environments. And it turned out, really, there is a lot in common in how a person behaves. Apparently, this is an unconscious phenomenon. We fixed these phenomena and called them the tactical principles that a person uses when advancing and consolidating in an extreme environment.
- And what are they?
- There are three main ones. The first is a system of sequential experiments. When each next project is a continuation of the previous one. They are all interconnected. People dreamed about the orbital station for a long time. But before implementing it, there were a lot of trial and error, each of which is an independent project. The satellite rustled more than the station itself. And Belka and Strelka, the first man in space, Yuri Alekseevich (Gagarin - "HayTech"). Each project is a sign in itself.
The second principle is the use of a local resource.to fix in the medium. It’s just cheaper - not with us on the ships, when we master America, to carry logs and stones, but just come there with rope and axes and start to unfold on the spot.
Model base on the moon, Anton Rakov
And the third tactical principle is inclusion.mastered environment in the economic interests of the ecumene. Given these three tactical principles, it can be said with confidence that our environment will be ours, and an active exploration will soon begin there. Of these three tactical principles in the history of the exploration of the moon, one and a half are now ready. Very soon it will be studied to such an extent that it will be possible to plan a settlement. Just in case, I will say this is not a secret - the moon has already been measured far and wide, studied geology, topography in great detail. I would even say that in the open access on Earth there is no such detail as on the Moon.
Resources are shared, and what can be done from them is private
- That is, we already know all the resources that can be mined on the moon?
- Yes, there are many interesting things there - not only water orhelium-3, but also gold and silver. Therefore, now at the international level there are questions: what to do with the agreements that continue to operate? And we, our team, in fact, the first who started asking such questions.
There are international agreements that rightforbid to sell the moon as a territory. Exactly the same agreement, in which the Soviet Union then participated, and Russia, now as the legal successor, establishes the rights of the owners for what they delivered and manufactured there. Which is also logical. There are no questions to the territory, it is clear with the devices. But we took the device, made the first moon brick. We have a question: whose brick? The preliminary answer is that our brick is - it belongs to the one who made it. This means that it can be sold.
“But then why are resources still considered common?” It is as if there were free oil on Earth, but paid gasoline.
- Yes, but then what a story: in fact, this issue is settled in the very near future, you just have to sit down and agree. And there are two fundamentally different approaches to this. In the 60s of the 20th century this question was simply not written, because it was very far from the development of resources.
Not long ago, the United States and Luxembourg allowed theircompanies extract resources. It is not very good to allow your companies to simply take and expropriate unilaterally what was considered common. And they even recruit and train specialists - geologists, only on the moon. We actually learn too. This is not very well known, but we are learning.
Photo: Maxim Bubnov / "Hightech"
And there is a second scenario - morehumane and, I think, the right approach. There is a resource, and everyone acknowledged that it belongs equally to all mankind. But this does not mean that it can not be used. Moreover, the same documents allow it to be used in case of occurrence of risks to life, health and for scientific purposes. And if we are talking about commercial use, this is a simple solution. It is enough to take, to introduce some kind of compensation collection when using resources, to organize some such international institution, for example, an international space agency, which would act as a guarantor of the rights of all. If someone sold a brick, a percentage of this can be taken and then sent to compensate for the interests of all the others. And such an approach can be used as a basis for further advancement to the moon, which in fact is already inevitable.
Not so long ago there was a report from the Club of Rome, we are veryI liked the thesis that we live in a complete world, and not in an empty one, as, for example, 200 years ago. That is, some continue to behave as if they are still living in an empty world and continue to master something, and this is no longer the case. The world has already been mastered. No, there are still extreme environments on Earth, they still remain.
- Oceans, for example ...
- Well yes. First there, - and then we will start to fight each other. And this is wrong. Above us is a monstrous black abyss, from which there comes much more threats. Now it is known that in 2051 and in 2068 there will be a danger of rapprochement with the asteroid Apophis - such as the minimum probability, but it is.
Apophis - an asteroid approaching the Earth, discovered in2004 at the Kitt Peak Observatory in Arizona. After the January passage of the asteroid past the Earth in 2013, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory specialists stated that the possibility of a collision with the Earth in 2029 was excluded, and in 2036 it was extremely unlikely.
The moon is a natural way to expandborders of extreme environment. She constantly retreats. Even literally in the Stone Age, the extreme environment began behind the cave. Because a person who is not armed with all that we now have was as defenseless in front of a tiger or a fierce winter, as we are now in space. In fact, this is just another technological level. History likes to repeat. And with every study of all known cases we were constantly convinced of this — this is a natural process.
"Stone - the first object of ownership on the moon"
- What can be built from the material mined on the moon, and what should be brought there?
- Before you even talk about the base, you need at leastbuild something there. Because the construction experience outside the Earth simply does not exist. And then a lot of questions. Because you cannot build a base right away, you need to gradually approach the base on the Moon step by step, step by step. First, conduct a series of experiments, each of which will also be a landmark. The second point is that you cannot bring a lot there, because it is expensive, hard and no one needs. Therefore, it must be a local resource. An accessible and easily extracted resource is the ground. There is a technology that we can now use to process it - focused sunlight.
Therefore, we have planned several suchrobotic devices, we already grabbed them and started them - heliographs - to do. I call him "helio", but in fact he is just a lithographer. We have a draft design of the stacker, and there is a loader that collects the soil, loads it into the heliolithograph, picks up the stones and transports them to the installation site. Here are three devices that can operate completely autonomously, without human intervention. First collect the first artificial stone on the surface - the monument to the explorers of space, then the first landing site in history on the surface of the moon. And she needed. Earlier, when the device flew in and studied, he would sit in an open field and did not interfere with anyone. But when organizing systematic flights, we must land at about one point, and this is where the problems begin. Because the engine scatters a large amount of radioactive dust, which, moreover, has a high abrasive effect. If you prepare the landing area, then you need to pave it, cover it with stones that can not take off from jet engines.
Then the story begins with the first stoneshelters. And here, too, we have our own vision of how to do it. Some of the equipment that has already been developed will be delivered there - for example, habitable modules in which people live. Because there is no possibility right now to produce them on the moon. But to carry heavy protection from the Earth, too, there is no need.
It is already known that the lunar soil is capable ofabsorb radiation, and stop micrometeorites. Of course, we will not defend ourselves against large meteorites, but micrometeorites, which fly at a speed greater than a bullet, completely. Therefore, our concept is based on the fact that protective structures should in no case be part of the design of the station itself or of the delivered objects in general. A habitable shell with air and stone structures should be separated by a decent distance - sufficient to carry out a simple inspection, visual inspection.
This stone we are talking about is the firstproperty object. It is clear that both gold and silver can be mined, but for him it is still necessary to deploy an industrial site. And a stone is where everything starts. It can be an object of property, which means that if we are tiled up, then it is ours. You see, we are talking about the fact that a stone can become a tool for translating the price of the Moon into property. No questions, no one claims to the subsoil. That is, we, of course, will not interfere with the use, but, nevertheless, this is a reason to take money or negotiate. This process is in full swing, and it is very important for us to jump literally into the train, which has already started.
- If we perceive houses as by analogy with the Earth, are windows possible there, how much will they be different from what they are used to seeing on Earth?
- Of course, it will be something else, not likeEarth The moon is an extreme environment that returns a person with all the achievements, with all the coolness, back in history - right into antiquity. We bake a stone with focused sunlight, but not a single technology is able to put reinforcement there. That is, reinforced concrete can not be done there now. These are the stones that we stack on top of each other, without a solution - they just lie there. Maximum we can afford to pour a little bit of soil for a more even distribution of the load. That is, it is actually an ancient order.
- It sounds like not the most durable construction.
- Well, how not durable. All examples of such constructions have survived to this day from ancient times. And the most destructive factor is the man himself. Those who did not touch, feel very good and look. Another climate, it is clear that in Egypt it is much better preserved, simply because there is no moisture. On the moon with this full order - there is no moisture at all. So this stone defense is what you need at the current stage of time.
Photo: Maxim Bubnov / "Hightech"
The windows will be, but in the form of portholes. We cannot afford such luxury as on Earth, in order to directly admire the horizon. We must understand that there, where the sun looks, there should be no windows. Anything comes from the Sun to the Moon, because there is no Earth's magnetosphere, it is lacking there. And the moon has no full-fledged magnetosphere. Any flash erases all information from any unprotected media. It is rational to organize some kind of intermediate space, where you can not worry about radiation, and already inside it there will be some portholes. Although, again, these portholes are also quite modest compared to the fact that science fiction writers were drawing - this is me about glass domes. This is generally fantastic. Domes in the foreseeable future will not be realized either on the Moon or on Mars. Although the dome design itself, of course, is relevant.
- How will gravity on the moon affect architecture?
- I will say this: it will require even more massiveness than on Earth.
- Each brick will have to do six times harder?
- Yes. And this does not contradict the initial conditions, because we also need protection. The thickness of the material is also for protection. With this complete order, the question is simply in volumes.
- Do you have any contacts with Roscosmos?
- I can't tell everything. We cooperate with enterprises, including those included in Roscosmos. We cooperate with NPO Lavochkin and RSC Energia, and these are precisely the key enterprises that are seen as promising participants in this.
- When do you think the first house on the moon might appear?
- House ... I'm afraid to promise a house, but I hope that somewhere in the interval from 2030 to 2040 the first stone appears, which we are talking about.